Evaluation of Garam Masala Spices and Phosphates as Antioxidants in Cooked Ground Beef



ABSTRACT:  This study determined antioxidant effects and sensory attributes of individual ingredients (black pepper, caraway, cardamom, chili powder, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, cumin, fennel, ginger, nutmeg, salt, star anise) of an Indian spice blend (garam masala) in cooked ground beef. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were measured as an indicator of rancidity for cooked samples on 1-, 8-, or 15-d refrigerated storage. Cooked samples were evaluated by a trained panel (n= 13) for the intensity of rancid odor/flavor, beef flavor, and spice flavor and correlated with TBA values of same day samples. We also investigated possible additive effects between spice antioxidants and iron binding (type II) antioxidants on lipid oxidation by measuring TBA values. All spices had antioxidant effects on cooked ground beef, compared to controls. Among spices, cloves were the most effective in controlling lipid oxidation, with TBA values of 0.75, after 15-d refrigerated storage. All spices at their recommended levels lowered rancid odor and flavor in cooked ground beef, compared to controls. As expected, most spices also imparted distinctive flavors to cooked ground beef. There was a positive correlation (0.77) between TBA values on 15-d refrigerated storage and rancid odor/flavor. Type II antioxidants (iron-binding phosphate compounds) were more effective than individual type I antioxidants (spices and butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) for maintenance of low TBA values in cooked ground beef during storage. Additive effects were observed with rosemary + milk mineral or sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) compared to rosemary alone.