ABSTRACT: This review encompasses the binding of volatile flavor compounds by milk proteins in aqueous solutions. The presence of proteins in a food matrix can result in a decrease in aroma perception and in an unpleasant aroma profile, because of binding of the desirable flavor compounds to proteins. Hence, various analytical methods used to measure the extent and the type of binding, and the determination of the binding parameters, are evaluated in this review. The binding of various flavor compounds by individual milk proteins is discussed and compared in terms of their binding affinity for flavor compounds. Furthermore, the influence of temperature and ultra-high pressures on the interactions between proteins and flavors is considered in detail. The implications of protein–flavor binding in the development of protein foods are discussed.