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Chitosan Protects Cooked Ground Beef and Turkey Against Clostridium perfringens Spores During Chilling

Authors

  • Vijay K. Juneja,

    1. Author Juneja is with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Author Thippareddi is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, U.S.A. Authors Bari, Inatsu, and Kawamoto are with Natl. Food Research Inst., Food Hygiene Team, Kannondai-2-1-12, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan. Author Friedman is with Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA 94710, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Juneja (E-mail: vjuneja@errc.ars.usda.gov).
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  • Harshavardhan Thippareddi,

    1. Author Juneja is with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Author Thippareddi is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, U.S.A. Authors Bari, Inatsu, and Kawamoto are with Natl. Food Research Inst., Food Hygiene Team, Kannondai-2-1-12, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan. Author Friedman is with Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA 94710, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Juneja (E-mail: vjuneja@errc.ars.usda.gov).
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  • Latiful Bari,

    1. Author Juneja is with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Author Thippareddi is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, U.S.A. Authors Bari, Inatsu, and Kawamoto are with Natl. Food Research Inst., Food Hygiene Team, Kannondai-2-1-12, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan. Author Friedman is with Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA 94710, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Juneja (E-mail: vjuneja@errc.ars.usda.gov).
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  • Yasuhiro Inatsu,

    1. Author Juneja is with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Author Thippareddi is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, U.S.A. Authors Bari, Inatsu, and Kawamoto are with Natl. Food Research Inst., Food Hygiene Team, Kannondai-2-1-12, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan. Author Friedman is with Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA 94710, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Juneja (E-mail: vjuneja@errc.ars.usda.gov).
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  • Shinichi Kawamoto,

    1. Author Juneja is with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Author Thippareddi is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, U.S.A. Authors Bari, Inatsu, and Kawamoto are with Natl. Food Research Inst., Food Hygiene Team, Kannondai-2-1-12, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan. Author Friedman is with Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA 94710, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Juneja (E-mail: vjuneja@errc.ars.usda.gov).
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  • Mendel Friedman

    1. Author Juneja is with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Author Thippareddi is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, U.S.A. Authors Bari, Inatsu, and Kawamoto are with Natl. Food Research Inst., Food Hygiene Team, Kannondai-2-1-12, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan. Author Friedman is with Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA 94710, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Juneja (E-mail: vjuneja@errc.ars.usda.gov).
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  • Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Mention of a trade name, proprietary products, or company name is for presentation clarity and does not imply endorsement by the authors of the Univ. of Nebraska.

Abstract

ABSTRACT:  We investigated the inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by the biopolymer chitosan during abusive chilling of cooked ground beef (25% fat) and turkey (7% fat) obtained from a retail store. Chitosan was mixed into the thawed beef or turkey at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, or 3.0% (w/w) along with a heat-activated 3-strain spore cocktail to obtain a final spore concentration of 2 to 3 log10 CFU/g. Samples (5 g) of the ground beef or turkey mixtures were then vacuum-packaged and cooked to 60 °C in 1 h in a temperature-controlled water bath. Thereafter, the products were cooled from 54.4 to 7.2 °C in 12, 15, 18, or 21 h, resulting in 4.21, 4.51, 5.03, and 4.70 log10 CFU/g increases, respectively, in C. perfringens populations in the ground beef control samples without chitosan. The corresponding increases for ground turkey were 5.27, 4.52, 5.11, and 5.38 log10 CFU/g. Addition of chitosan to beef or turkey resulted in concentration- and time-dependent inhibition in the C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth. At 3%, chitosan reduced by 4 to 5 log10 CFU/g C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth (P≤ 0.05) during exponential cooling of the cooked beef or turkey in 12, 15, or 18 h. The reduction was significantly lower (P < 0.05) at a chilling time of 21 h, about 2 log10 CFU/g, that is, 7.56 log10 CFU/g (unsupplemented) compared with 5.59 log10 CFU/g (3% chitosan). The results suggest that incorporation of 3% chitosan into ground beef or turkey may reduce the potential risk of C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during abusive cooling from 54.4 to 7.2 °C in 12, 15, or 18 h.

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