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Effect of Components Extracted from Okara on the Physicochemical Properties of Soymilk and Tofu Texture

Authors

  • Kyoko Toda,

    1. Author Toda is with National Inst. of Crop Science, 2-1-18 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8518, Japan. Authors Chiba and Ono are with The Graduate School of Agriculture, Iwate Univ., 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Toda (E-mail: kyokot@affrc.go.jp).
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  • Kyoko Chiba,

    1. Author Toda is with National Inst. of Crop Science, 2-1-18 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8518, Japan. Authors Chiba and Ono are with The Graduate School of Agriculture, Iwate Univ., 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Toda (E-mail: kyokot@affrc.go.jp).
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  • Tomotada Ono

    1. Author Toda is with National Inst. of Crop Science, 2-1-18 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8518, Japan. Authors Chiba and Ono are with The Graduate School of Agriculture, Iwate Univ., 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Toda (E-mail: kyokot@affrc.go.jp).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  The physicochemical properties of soymilk and the texture of tofu were compared with regard to 2 kinds of soymilk, one of which was prepared by squeezing homogenates before heating and the other was prepared by squeezing after heating raw soymilk with okara, residue of soymilk production. Relative particulate protein content and viscosity were higher and pH was lower in the soymilk prepared by the latter method, in which liberated lipid bodies were decreased and more lipids were precipitated with protein after centrifugation, suggesting a change in the interaction between proteins and lipids. A difference in the distribution of proteins and lipids was also implied by analysis with a laser particle size analyzer. The breaking stress of tofu made with 0.30% glucono-delta-lactone increased in accordance with an increase in particulate protein. The calcium and magnesium contents increased in soymilk prepared by squeezing after heating with okara. Viscosity was slightly increased and pH decreased by adding calcium to the soymilk, but the particulate protein content and breaking stress of tofu did not increase significantly. To examine the effect of macromolecules, okara was extracted by boiling and dialyzed. Viscosity and particulate protein content in soymilk increased as the dialyzed extracts of the okara were added. The breaking stress of tofu was increased by adding the dialyzed extracts but excessive amounts of the extracts resulted in softer tofu. Spectra of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis-separated patterns of proteins indicated that the dialyzed extracts contained mainly polysaccharides and the Basic 7S globulin protein.

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