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Improvement of the in vitro Digestible Iron and Zinc Content of Okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) Sauce Widely Consumed in Sahelian Africa

Authors

  • Sylvie Avallone,

    1. Authors Avallone and Bohuon are with ENSIA-SIARC, 1101 Ave. Agropolis, CS 24501, 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Authors Avallone, Hemery, and Treche are with UR 106 “Nutrition Alimentation, Sociétés,” IRD, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Direct inquiries to author Avallone (E-mail: avallone@mpl.ird.fr).
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  • Philippe Bohuon,

    1. Authors Avallone and Bohuon are with ENSIA-SIARC, 1101 Ave. Agropolis, CS 24501, 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Authors Avallone, Hemery, and Treche are with UR 106 “Nutrition Alimentation, Sociétés,” IRD, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Direct inquiries to author Avallone (E-mail: avallone@mpl.ird.fr).
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  • Youna Hemery,

    1. Authors Avallone and Bohuon are with ENSIA-SIARC, 1101 Ave. Agropolis, CS 24501, 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Authors Avallone, Hemery, and Treche are with UR 106 “Nutrition Alimentation, Sociétés,” IRD, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Direct inquiries to author Avallone (E-mail: avallone@mpl.ird.fr).
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  • Serge Treche

    1. Authors Avallone and Bohuon are with ENSIA-SIARC, 1101 Ave. Agropolis, CS 24501, 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Authors Avallone, Hemery, and Treche are with UR 106 “Nutrition Alimentation, Sociétés,” IRD, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Direct inquiries to author Avallone (E-mail: avallone@mpl.ird.fr).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  The effects of the formulation (okra, fish, soumbala, extract of wood ash) and cooking time of okra sauce on total iron and zinc content and on their in vitro digestibility were evaluated following a Doehlert uniform shell design with 5 factors and 33 trials. Cooking time had no significant effect on in vitro digestible iron and zinc content, whereas formulation did. Each ingredient had a specific effect. Extract of wood ash, which is a source of soluble and digestible iron and zinc, is a good way of increasing the digestible mineral content of the dish. Okra, the main ingredient in this sauce, has a negative effect and should be added in moderate quantities (< 37.7% of the DM of the sauce). An optimization using the desirability function allows us to identify the optimal recipe that enabled the quantity of digestible iron to be doubled and the quantity of digestible zinc to be increased by one third. This recipe calls for a mixture of 37.7% okra, 26.3% dried fish, 18.5% soumbala, and 3.7% extract of wood ash cooked for 25 min.

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