Article nr FSR06-27 of the Journal Series of the Dept. of Food Science, NC State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7624. Mention of a trademark or proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture or North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, nor does it imply approval to the exclusion of other products that may be suitable.
The Chemistry and Physiology of Sour Taste—A Review
Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2007
Journal of Food Science
Volume 72, Issue 2, pages R33–R38, March 2007
How to Cite
Da Conceicao Neta, E. R., Johanningsmeier, S. D. and McFeeters, R. F. (2007), The Chemistry and Physiology of Sour Taste—A Review. Journal of Food Science, 72: R33–R38. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00282.x
- Issue online: 12 MAR 2007
- Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2007
- MS 20060602 Submitted 11/7/2006, Accepted 12/19/2006
- 1965. Acids and the acid taste. The effect of pH and titratable acidity. Am J Enol Vitic 16:29–37. , , .
- 1975. Acidulants for foods and beverages. London : Food Trade Press. .
- 1935. The sourness of acids. J Am Chem Soc 57:2347–51. , .
- 1907. Zur Kenntniss des geschmackes Zeitschrift fur. Physiol. Chemie 52:469–505. , .
- 1967. Anion influences in taste receptor response. In: HayashiT, editor. Olfaction and taste II. New York : Pergamon Press. p 509–34. .
- 1971. Taste receptor stimulation with salts and acids. In: BeidlerLM, editor. Handbook of sensory physiology IV. Chemical senses 2. New York : Springer-Verlag. p 200–20. .
- 1978. Biophysics and chemistry. In: CarteretteEC, FriedmanMP, editors. Handbook of perception. Volume VIA: tasting and smelling. New York : Academic Press. p 21–49. .
- 1971. The nature of taste receptor sites. In: Contributions to sensory physiology. New York : Academic. p 97–127. , .
- 1955. Evaluation of threshold and minimum difference concentrations for various constituents of wines. 1. Water solutions of pure substances. Food Technol 9:23–6. , , , .
- 1967. The relation between neural and perceptual intensity: a comparative study on the neural and psychophysical response to taste stimuli. J Physiol 192:13–20. , , , .
- 1963. Effect of acid solutions on human gustatory chemoreceptors as determined by parotid gland secretion rate. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 112:917–23. , , .
- 1995. Astringency subqualities in acids. Chem Senses 20:593–600. , .
- 1989. Influence of titratable acidity and pH on intensity of sourness of citric, malic, tartaric, lactic and acetic acid solutions on the overall acceptability of imitation apple juice. Can Inst Food Sci Techonol J 22:46–51. , , .
- 1992. Apical K+ channels in Necturus taste cells: modulation by intracellular factors and taste stimuli. J Gen Physiol 99:591–613. , .
- 1976. A model for the stimulation of taste receptor cells by salt. Biophys J 16:869–81. , .
- 1995. Chorda tympani taste response of rat to hydrochloric acid subject to voltage-clamped lingual receptive field. Am J Physiol 268:C1295–300. , , .
- 2001. Acid detection by taste receptor cells. Respir Physiol 129:231–45. , , , .
- 1987a. Effects of adaptation and cross-adaptation to common ions on sourness intensity. Physiol Behav 40:641–6. , .
- 1987b. The sour taste of acids. The hydrogen ion and the undissociated acid as sour agents. Chem Senses 12(4):563–76. , .
- 1980. Lipid solubility and the sourness of acids: implications for models of the acid taste receptor. Chem Senses Flav 5:185–94. .
- 1977. Acidulants in food processing. In: FuriaTE, editor. Handbook of food additives. 2nd ed. Cleveland , Ohio : CRC Press. p 225–87. .
- 1992. Proton currents through amiloride-sensitive Na channels in hamster taste cells. Role in acid transduction. J Gen Physiol 100:803–24. , , , .
- 2000. The molecular physiology of taste transduction. Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:519–27. , , .
- 1980. The importance of hydrophobic properties of organic compounds on their taste intensities: a quantitative structure-taste-intensity study. J Agric Food Chem 28:562–6. .
- 1986. The time course of astringency in wine upon repeated ingestions. Am J Enol Vitic 37:184–9. , , .
- 1995. Flavor characteristics of lactic, malic, citric, and acetic acids at various pH levels. J Food Sc 60(2):384–8. , and .
- 1920. The relation between the total acidity, the concentration of the hydrogen ion, and the taste of acid solutions. J Am Chem Soc 42:712–4. .
- 1999. Cellular mechanisms of taste transduction. Annu Rev Physiol 61:873–900. , .
- 2006. The cells and logic for mammalian sour taste detection. Nature 442:934–8. , , , , , , .
- 2006. Transient receptor potential family members PKD1L3 and PKD2L1 form a candidate sour taste receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103:12569–74. , , , , , .
- 2005. A hypothesis for the chemical basis for perception of sour taste. J Food Sc 70(2):R44–8. , , .
- 1974. Acidulants. In: Encyclopedia of food technology. Westport , Conn. : Avi Publising Co. p 1–6. , .
- 1964. Astringency of fruits and fruit products in relation to phenolic content. Adv Food Res 13:179–217. , .
- 1931. The sour taste of acids. Trans Roy Soc Can 25:227. .
- 1988. Membrane properties of isolated mudpuppy taste cells. J Gen Physiol 91:351–71. , .
- 1988. Apical localization of K+ channels in taste cells provides the basis for sour taste transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci 85:7023–7. , , .
- 1972. Receptor site for sour stimuli. Nature 239(5373):459–60. , .
- 1991. Electrogenic ion pumps. Sunderland , Mass. : Sinauer Associates Inc. .
- 1991. Taste and odor. In: HuiYH, editor. Wiley encyclopedia of food science and technology. New York : John Wiley and Sons. p 2509–25. .
- 1996. Astringency of organic acids is related to pH. Chem Senses 21:397–403. , , .
- 1922. The threshold value of acid taste. Arch Neerl Physiol 7:532–7. .
- 2002. Acid-activated cation currents in rat vallate taste receptor cells. J Neurophysiol 88:133–41. , , .
- 1996. Taste reception. Physiol Rev 76(3):719–59. .
- 2001. Receptors and transduction in taste. Nature 413:219–25. .
- 2001. Acidic stimuli activate two distinct pathways in taste receptor cells from rat fungiform papillae. Brain Research 923:58–70. , .
- 2005. Time-intensity evaluation of acid taste in subjects with saliva high flow and low flow rates for acids of various chemical properties. Chem Senses 30:89–103. , , , .
- 2001. Decrease in rat taste receptor cell intracellular pH is the proximate stimulus in sour taste transduction. Am J Physiol 281:C1005–13. , , , , , , , , , , .
- 1972. Kinetics of the taste response to chemical stimulation: a theory of acid taste in man. Gastroenterol 63:67–75. , .
- 1971. Taste and water taste of 26 compounds for man. Percep Psychophys 10:249–52. , .
- 1972. Gustatory cross adaptation: sourness and bitterness. Percept Psychophys 11:228–32. , ,
- 1975. Flavor chemistry of beer II. Flavor and threshold of 239 aroma volatiles. Tech Qu, Master Brewers' Assn. Americas 12:151–68. .
- 1967. Variability in gustatory quality identification. Percep Psychophys 2:496–8. , .
- 1998. Sour transduction involves activation of NPPB-sensitive conductance in mouse taste cells. J Neurophysiol 80:1852–9. , , , .
- 2000. Acid and salt responses in mouse taste cells. Prog Neurobiol 62:135–57. , , , .
- 1971. Ratio scales of acid sourness. Percept Psychophys 9:371–4. .
- 1982. The nature of the substance P-containing nerve fibers in taste papillae of the rat tongue. Neuroscience 7:3137–51. , , , .
- 1986. Comparison of sourness of organic acid anions at equal pH and equal titratable acidity. J Sens Stud 1(1):1–7. , , .
- 1984. Human saliva and taste responses to acids varying in anions, titratable acidity, and pH. Physiol Behav 32:237–44. , , .
- 2000. Possible involvement of undissociated acid molecules in the acid response of the chorda tympani nerve of the rat. J Neurophysiol 83:2776–9. , , , .
- 1963. Sensory examination of four organic acids added to wine. J Food Sci 28:1,101. .
- 1963. Relative taste intensities of selected sugars and organic acids. J Food Sci 28:726–33. .
- 1959. The sense of taste. In: FieldJ, editor. Handbook of physiology- neurophysiology. Washington , D.C. : American Physiologicol Society 507–33. .
- 1980. An acidity index for the taste of wines. Am J Enol Vitic 31:265–8. , , .
- 1898. The relation of the taste of acids to their degree of dissociation. J Am Chem Soc 20:121–6. .
- 2003. Sour taste stimuli evoke Ca2+ and pH responses in mouse taste cells. J Physiol 547:475–83. , , .
- 1992. Sensory evaluation of acids by free-choice profiling. Chem Senses 17(3):273–89. , .
- 1986. Chemosensory properties of sour tastants. Physiol Behav 36:619–23. , , , , .
- 1996. The AH,B glycophore and general taste chemistry. Food Chem 56(3):209–14. .
- 1999. Modeling the flavor thresholds of organic acids in beer as a function of their molecular properties. Food Qual Pref 10:129–37. .
- 2003. An alternate mechanism for the astringent sensation of acids. Food Qual Pre 15 (1):13–8. , .
- 1998. Comparison of the effects of concentration, pH and anion species on astringency and sourness of organic acids. Chem Senses 23(3):343–9. , .
- 2001. Hyperpolarization-activated channels HCN1 and HCN4 mediate responses to sour stimuli. Nature 413:31–635. , , , , , , , , .
- 1997. New perspectives in gustatory physiology: transduction, development, and plasticity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 272:C1–26. , , .
- 1927. Acid penetration into living tissues. J Gen. Physiol 11(3):207–19. .
- 1930. The nature of the nerve receptor for the acid taste as indicated by the absorption of organic acids by fats and proteins. Protoplasma 10:98–106. .
- 1930. Quantitative measurements on the acid taste and their bearing on the nature of the nerve receptors. Protoplasma 10:84–97. , , .
- 1998. Receptor that leaves a sour taste in the mouth. Nature 395:555–6. , , , , , , , .
- 1984. Immunoelectron-microscopic study on the fine structure of substance-P-containing fibers in the taste buds of the rat. J Comp Neurol 227:380–92. , , , .