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Energy Content, Sensory Properties, and Microbiological Shelf Life of German Bologna-Type Sausages Produced with Citrate or Phosphate and with Inulin as Fat Replacer

Authors

  • B. Nowak,

    1. Authors Nowak, von Mueffling, and Klein are with Inst. for Food Quality and Food Safety, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany. Authors Grotheer and Watkinson are with Inst. for Food Science, Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Wunstorfer Strasse 14, 30453 Hannover, Germany. Direct inquiries to author Nowak (E-mail: bernhard.nowak@tiho-hannover.de).
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  • T. Von Mueffling,

    1. Authors Nowak, von Mueffling, and Klein are with Inst. for Food Quality and Food Safety, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany. Authors Grotheer and Watkinson are with Inst. for Food Science, Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Wunstorfer Strasse 14, 30453 Hannover, Germany. Direct inquiries to author Nowak (E-mail: bernhard.nowak@tiho-hannover.de).
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  • J. Grotheer,

    1. Authors Nowak, von Mueffling, and Klein are with Inst. for Food Quality and Food Safety, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany. Authors Grotheer and Watkinson are with Inst. for Food Science, Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Wunstorfer Strasse 14, 30453 Hannover, Germany. Direct inquiries to author Nowak (E-mail: bernhard.nowak@tiho-hannover.de).
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  • G. Klein,

    1. Authors Nowak, von Mueffling, and Klein are with Inst. for Food Quality and Food Safety, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany. Authors Grotheer and Watkinson are with Inst. for Food Science, Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Wunstorfer Strasse 14, 30453 Hannover, Germany. Direct inquiries to author Nowak (E-mail: bernhard.nowak@tiho-hannover.de).
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  • B.-M. Watkinson

    1. Authors Nowak, von Mueffling, and Klein are with Inst. for Food Quality and Food Safety, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany. Authors Grotheer and Watkinson are with Inst. for Food Science, Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Wunstorfer Strasse 14, 30453 Hannover, Germany. Direct inquiries to author Nowak (E-mail: bernhard.nowak@tiho-hannover.de).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of reducing energy content (9% to 48%) in bologna-type sausages by replacing fat with inulin and to study the effects of substituting citrate for phosphate in the traditional sausage formula. German-type mortadella was produced, and fat was replaced with increasing amounts of inulin as a frozen gel to yield 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12% inulin in the final product. In another part of the study, citrate was substituted for the phosphate in the recipe. All sausages produced were sliced, packaged under a modified atmosphere (70% N2, 30% CO2), and stored for 23 d at +7 °C. Sausage quality was determined by chemical and instrumental texture profile analyses, color measurement, sensory evaluation, and microbiological testing. Replacing fat with inulin led to significant energy content reductions of up to 47.5% (with 12% inulin). However, the sensory properties of these sausages were also different from those of the control mortadella: fracturability fell, hardness and adhesiveness rose, and color became darker. In general, the substitution of citrate for phosphate significantly reduced the negative effects of inulin. There were no significant differences in microbiological stability between different inulin batches but there were significant differences between phosphate and citrate batches. Overall, the energy content of bologna-type sausages produced with citrate and with up to 6% inulin as a fat replacer was 22% lower than that of the control sausages. Furthermore, the sensory attributes (texture, color) of these 6% inulin–citrate sausages were comparable to the control sausages, and the sausages were microbiologically stable for 23 d of storage.

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