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Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds of Sardine (Sardinops melanostica) by Solid Phase Microextraction

Authors

  • N. Ganeko,

    1. Authors Ganeko, Shoda, and Bhadra are with Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Hirohara, Takamura, and Matoba are with Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Ishida and Matsuda are with Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd., 1 Shimotoba-yoshidencho, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8381, Japan. Author Matsuda is also with Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co., Ltd., 8–13, Kogawashinmachi 5-chome, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8570, Japan. Author Takamura is also with KYOUSEI Science Center for Life and Nature, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Takamura (E-mail: takamura@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp).
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  • M. Shoda,

    1. Authors Ganeko, Shoda, and Bhadra are with Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Hirohara, Takamura, and Matoba are with Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Ishida and Matsuda are with Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd., 1 Shimotoba-yoshidencho, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8381, Japan. Author Matsuda is also with Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co., Ltd., 8–13, Kogawashinmachi 5-chome, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8570, Japan. Author Takamura is also with KYOUSEI Science Center for Life and Nature, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Takamura (E-mail: takamura@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp).
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  • I. Hirohara,

    1. Authors Ganeko, Shoda, and Bhadra are with Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Hirohara, Takamura, and Matoba are with Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Ishida and Matsuda are with Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd., 1 Shimotoba-yoshidencho, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8381, Japan. Author Matsuda is also with Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co., Ltd., 8–13, Kogawashinmachi 5-chome, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8570, Japan. Author Takamura is also with KYOUSEI Science Center for Life and Nature, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Takamura (E-mail: takamura@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp).
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  • A. Bhadra,

    1. Authors Ganeko, Shoda, and Bhadra are with Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Hirohara, Takamura, and Matoba are with Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Ishida and Matsuda are with Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd., 1 Shimotoba-yoshidencho, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8381, Japan. Author Matsuda is also with Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co., Ltd., 8–13, Kogawashinmachi 5-chome, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8570, Japan. Author Takamura is also with KYOUSEI Science Center for Life and Nature, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Takamura (E-mail: takamura@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp).
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  • T. Ishida,

    1. Authors Ganeko, Shoda, and Bhadra are with Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Hirohara, Takamura, and Matoba are with Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Ishida and Matsuda are with Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd., 1 Shimotoba-yoshidencho, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8381, Japan. Author Matsuda is also with Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co., Ltd., 8–13, Kogawashinmachi 5-chome, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8570, Japan. Author Takamura is also with KYOUSEI Science Center for Life and Nature, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Takamura (E-mail: takamura@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp).
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  • H. Matsuda,

    1. Authors Ganeko, Shoda, and Bhadra are with Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Hirohara, Takamura, and Matoba are with Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Ishida and Matsuda are with Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd., 1 Shimotoba-yoshidencho, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8381, Japan. Author Matsuda is also with Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co., Ltd., 8–13, Kogawashinmachi 5-chome, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8570, Japan. Author Takamura is also with KYOUSEI Science Center for Life and Nature, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Takamura (E-mail: takamura@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp).
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  • H. Takamura,

    1. Authors Ganeko, Shoda, and Bhadra are with Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Hirohara, Takamura, and Matoba are with Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Ishida and Matsuda are with Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd., 1 Shimotoba-yoshidencho, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8381, Japan. Author Matsuda is also with Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co., Ltd., 8–13, Kogawashinmachi 5-chome, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8570, Japan. Author Takamura is also with KYOUSEI Science Center for Life and Nature, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Takamura (E-mail: takamura@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp).
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  • T. Matoba

    1. Authors Ganeko, Shoda, and Bhadra are with Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Hirohara, Takamura, and Matoba are with Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Authors Ishida and Matsuda are with Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd., 1 Shimotoba-yoshidencho, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8381, Japan. Author Matsuda is also with Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co., Ltd., 8–13, Kogawashinmachi 5-chome, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8570, Japan. Author Takamura is also with KYOUSEI Science Center for Life and Nature, Nara Women's Univ., Kitauoya-Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Takamura (E-mail: takamura@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp).
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  • A part of the study was presented at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists, Las Vegas, NV, U.S.A., in July 2004.

Abstract

ABSTRACT:  Generally the main component of fishy flavor is considered to be trimethylamine. On the other hand, carbonyl compounds, produced from oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid by lipoxygenase or by autoxidation, might have some contribution to the fishy flavor. Since sardine skin contains high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipoxygenase, carbonyl compounds may be generated more easily than trimethylamine. In this study, volatile flavor compounds of sardine were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry and gas chromatograph-olfactometry combined with solid phase microextraction. Then, the flavor components that contribute to fishy flavor were identified. At normal pH (6.2), trimethylamine was not detected or sensed from the fresh sardines. When the pH was raised, the amount of trimethylamine became higher. Trimethylamine flavor was weak at pH 9 and strongly sensed at pH 11 or higher. On the other hand, 33 other compounds were positively or tentatively identified, including 8 hydrocarbons, 5 ketones, 1 furan, 1 sulfur compound, 12 aldehydes, and 6 alcohols in fresh sardines. Among them, 2,3-pentanedione, hexanal, and 1-penten-3-ol were the main components. Forty-seven flavors were detected by gas chromatograph-olfactometry. Among them, paint-like (1-penten-3-one), caramel-like (2,3-pentanedione), green-like (hexanal), shore-like ((Z)-4-heptenal), citrus note (octanal), mushroom-like (1-octen-3-one), potato-like (methional), insect-like ((E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal), and bloody note (not identified) were strongly sensed. From the aforementioned results, it can be concluded that these compounds rather than trimethylamine contributed to fresh sardine flavor.

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