• citrus essential oils;
  • natural antimicrobials;
  • Salmonella

ABSTRACT:  Seven citrus essential oils (EOs) were screened by disc diffusion assay for their antibacterial activity against 11 serotypes/strains of Salmonella. The 3 most active oils were selected to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the same Salmonella. Orange terpenes, single-folded d-limonene, and orange essence terpenes all exhibited inhibitory activity against the Salmonella spp. on the disc diffusion assay. EOs were stabilized in broth by the addition of 0.15% (w/v) agar for performance of the MIC tests. Orange terpenes and d-limonene both had MICs of 1%. The most active compound, terpenes from orange essence, produced an MIC that ranged from 0.125% to 0.5% against the 11 Salmonella tested. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis revealed that this orange essence oil was composed principally of d-limonene, 94%, and myrcene at about 3%. EOs from citrus offer the potential for all natural antimicrobials for use in improving the safety of organic or all natural foods.