• Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg.;
  • antioxidant activities;
  • lipid peroxidation;
  • polyphenolic compounds;
  • proanthocyanidins

ABSTRACT: Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. or mao is widely used as commercial products of juice and wine in Thailand. As a result, waste products from the mao plant, such as mao seeds (MS) and mao marcs (MM), are plentiful. We aimed to purify and analyze polyphenolic content in both MS and MM and to investigate the radical scavenging activities of these polyphenolics against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARP). The results showed MS and MM to be an abundant source of polyphenols (97.32 to 130 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g) and proanthocyanidins. The radical scavenging activities of MS/MM against DPPH and ABTS radicals (IC50 of 0.85 to 1.21 μg/mL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of standard trolox (IC50 of 5.05 μg/mL). Activity of MS/MM extracts were 3.74 and 3.80 μg/mL trolox eq/g f.w. for the DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. The oxidation of erythrocyte membranes using 2-thiobarbituric acid demonstrated that the protective effect of MS/MM on lipid peroxidation is as strong as grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. These findings suggest that polyphenolic compounds and proanthocyanidins isolated from these mao extracts had much higher antioxidant activities than those of standard trolox and exhibited similar antioxidant potential to grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. These findings may also increase value of mao waste products and allow development of commercial health products.