A Combination of Grape Seed-Derived Procyanidins and Gypenosides Alleviates Insulin Resistance in Mice and HepG2 Cells

Authors

  • H.-J. Zhang,

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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  • B.-P. Ji,

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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  • G. Chen,

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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  • F. Zhou,

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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  • Y.-C. Luo,

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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  • H.-Q. Yu,

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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  • F.-Y. Gao,

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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  • Z.-P. Zhang,

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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  • H.-Y. Li

    1. Authors Zhang, Ji, Zhou, Luo, Yu, and Gao are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing, China. Author Chen is with The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang, China. Author Zhang is with Ankang Inst. for Drug Control, Shanxi, China. Author Li is with Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product R&D Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China. Direct inquiries to authors Ji and Chen (E-mail: zn_jibp@163.com).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  This study investigated the effects of grape seed-derived procyanidins (GSP), gypenosides (GPE), and combination procyanidins/gypenosides on insulin resistance in mice and HepG2 cells. ICR mice were randomly divided into 2 control and 4 treatment groups. The control mice were to receive either normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD), and the treatment groups were fed high-fat diet with either 80 mg/kg of GSP (GSP80), GPE (GPE80), GSP + GPE (1: 1, GSP40 + GPE40), or 500 mg/kg of metformin for a 6-wk period. All the groups of mice except the normal control were on high-fat diet along with fructose (15%) administered in drinking water throughout the period of treatment. An insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model was developed after 24 h of 5 × 10−7 mol/L insulin incubation. The treatment of GPE80 could significantly reduce the index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and increase hepatic glycogen concentration, compared with HFD group (P < 0.05). When GSP and GPE were administered simultaneously, synergic effects were observed in decreasing the HOMA-IR index and serum total cholesterol (TC) level and enhancing glucose tolerance. All treatment groups showed considerable raise of hepatic glucokinase activity (P < 0.05 compared with HFD group). GSP application increased the consumption of extracellular glucose in HepG2 cells. Our data suggest that the combination of GSP and GPE may have functional efficacy in consumers with insulin resistance.

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