SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anonymous. 2003. Code of ethical conduct for the use of live animals for teaching and research. Revised edition. Palmerston North , New Zealand : Massey Univ.
  • Bub A, Watzl B, Heeb D, Rechkemmer G, Briviba K. 2001. Malvidin-3-glucoside bioavailability in humans after ingestion of red wine, dealcoholized red wine and red grape juice. Eur J Nutr 40(3):11320.
  • Cao G, Prior RL. 1999. Anthocyanins are detected in human plasma after oral administration of an elderberry extract. Clin Chem 45(4):5746.
  • Cao G, Muccitelli HU, Sanchez-Moreno C, Prior RL. 2001. Anthocyanins are absorbed in glycated forms in elderly women: a pharmacokinetic study. Am J Clin Nutr 73(5):9206.
  • Cooney JM, Jensen DJ, McGhie TK. 2004. Lc-ms identification of anthocyanins in boysenberry extract and anthocyanin metabolites in human urine following dosing. J Sci Food Agric 84(3):23745.
  • Day AJ, DuPont MS, Ridley S, Rhodes M, Rhodes MJ, Morgan MR, Williamson G. 1998. Deglycosylation of flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides by human small intestine and liver beta-glucosidase activity. FEBS Lett 436(1):715.
  • Day AJ, Canada FJ, Diaz JC, Kroon PA, Mclauchlan R, Faulds CB, Plumb GW, Morgan MR, Williamson G. 2000. Dietary flavonoid and isoflavone glycosides are hydrolysed by the lactase site of lactase phlorizin hydrolase. FEBS Lett 468(2–3):16670.
  • Felgines C, Texier O, Besson C, Fraisse D, Lamaison J-L, Remesy C. 2002. Blackberry anthocyanins are slightly bioavailable in rats. J Nutr 132(6):124953.
  • Felgines C, Talavera S, Gonthier MP, Texier O, Scalbert A, Lamaison JL, Remesy C. 2003. Strawberry anthocyanins are recovered in urine as glucuro- and sulfoconjugates in humans. J Nutr 133(5):1296301.
  • Felgines C, Talavera S, Texier O, Gil-Izquierdo A, Lamaison JL, Remesy C. 2005. Blackberry anthocyanins are mainly recovered from urine as methylated and glucuronidated conjugates in humans. J Agric Food Chem 53(20):77217.
  • Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Teissedre PL. 1995. Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected california wines and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. J Agric Food Chem 43(4):8904.
  • He J, Magnuson BA, Giusti MM. 2005. Analysis of anthocyanins in rat intestinal contents—impact of anthocyanin chemical structure on fecal excretion. J Agric Food Chem 53(8):285966.
  • Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, Katan MB, Kromhout D. 1993. Intake of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids and their determinants in adults in The Netherlands. Nutr Cancer 20(1):219.
  • Ichiyanagi T, Rahman MM, Kashiwada Y, Ikeshiro Y, Shida Y, Hatano Y, Matsumoto H, Hirayama M, Tsuda T, Konishi T. 2004. Absorption and metabolism of delphinidin 3-o-[beta]-glucopyranoside in rats. Free Radic Biol Med 36(7):9307.
  • Ichiyanagi T, Shida Y, Rahman MM, Hatano Y, Konishi T. 2005a. Extended glucuronidation is another major path of cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside metabolism in rats. J Agric Food Chem 53(18):73129.
  • Ichiyanagi T, Shida Y, Rahman MM, Hatano Y, Matsumoto H, Hirayama M, Konishi T. 2005b. Metabolic pathway of cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside in rats. J Agric Food Chem 53(1):14550.
  • Janssen M, Netzel M, Strasse G, Kesenheimer B, Herbst M, Carle E, Bitsch I, Boehm V, Bitsch R. 2000. Increased plasmatic antioxidant capacity in humans after ingestion of blackcurrant and elderberry juice. Polyphenols commun 3678.
  • Kay CD, Mazza G, Holub BJ, Wang J. 2004. Anthocyanin metabolites in human urine and serum. Br J Nutr 91(6):93342.
  • Kay CD, Mazza G, Holub BJ. 2005. Anthocyanins exist in the circulation primarily as metabolites in adult men. J Nutr 135(11):25828.
  • Koeppen BH, Herrmann K. 1977. Flavonoid glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid esters of blackcurrants (ribes nigrum). Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 164:2638.
  • Kuhnau J. 1976. The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. World Rev Nutr Diet 24:11791.
  • Landrault N, Poucheret P, Ravel P, Gasc F, Cros G, Teissedre PL. 2001. Antioxidant capacities and phenolics levels of french wines from different varieties and vintages. J Agric Food Chem 49(7):33418.
  • Matsumoto H, Inaba H, Kishi M, Tominaga S, Hirayama M, Tsuda T. 2001. Orally administered delphinidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside are directly absorbed in rats and humans and appear in the blood as the intact forms. J Agric Food Chem 49(3):154651.
  • Matuschek MC, Hendriks WH, McGhie TK, Reynolds GW. 2006. The jejunum is the main site of absorption for anthocyanins in mice. J Nutr Biochem 17(1):316.
  • Mazza G, Miniati E. 1993. Anthocyanins in fruits, vegetables, and grains. Boca Raton , Fla. : CRC Press.
  • Mazza G, Kay CD, Cottrell T, Holub BJ. 2002. Absorption of anthocyanins from blueberries and serum antioxidant status in human subjects. J Agric Food Chem 50(26):77317.
  • McDougall GJ, Dobson P, Smith P, Blake A, Stewart D. 2005. Assessing potential bioavailability of raspberry anthocyanins using an in vitro digestion system. J Agric Food Chem 53(15):5896904.
  • McGhie TK, Ainge GD, Barnett LE, Cooney JM, Jensen DJ. 2003. Anthocyanin glycosides from berry fruit are absorbed and excreted unmetabolized by both humans and rats. J Agric Food Chem 51(16):453948.
  • Miyazawa T, Nakagawa K, Kudo M, Muraishi K, Someya K. 1999. Direct intestinal absorption of red fruit anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, into rats and humans. J Agric Food Chem 47(3):108391.
  • Netzel M, Strass G, Janssen M, Bitsch I, Bitsch R. 2001. Bioactive anthocyanins detected in human urine after ingestion of blackcurrant juice. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 20(2):8995.
  • Nielsen ILF, Dragsted LO, Ravn-Haren G, Freese R, Rasmussen SE. 2003. Absorption and excretion of blackcurrant anthocyanins in humans and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. J Agric Food Chem 51(9):281320.
  • Passamonti S, Vrhovsek U, Vanzo A, Mattivi F. 2005. Fast access of some grape pigments to the brain. J Agric Food Chem 53(18):702934.
  • Proteggente AR, Pannala AS, Paganga G, Van Buren L, Wagner E, Wiseman S, Van De Put F, Dacombe C, Rice-Evans CA. 2002. The antioxidant activity of regularly consumed fruit and vegetables reflects their phenolic and vitamin c composition. Free Radic Res 36(2):21733.
  • Ramirez-Tortosa C, Andersen OM, Gardner PT, Morrice PC, Wood SG, Duthie SJ, Collins AR, Duthie GG. 2001. Anthocyanin-rich extract decreases indices of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in vitamin e-depleted rats. Free Radic Biol Med 31(9):10337.
  • Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM, Pridham JB. 1995. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radic Res 22(4):37583.
  • Satue-Gracia MT, Heinonen M, Frankel EN. 1997. Anthocyanins as antioxidants on human low-density lipoprotein and lecithin-liposome systems. J Agric Food Chem 45(9):33627.
  • Slimestad R, Solheim H. 2002. Anthocyanins from black currants (ribes nigrum l.). J Agric Food Chem 50:322831.
  • Talavera S, Felgines C, Texier O, Besson C, Lamaison J-L, Rémésy C. 2003. Anthocyanins are efficiently absorbed from the stomach in anesthetized rats. J Nutr 133(12):417882.
  • Talavera S, Felgines C, Texier O, Besson C, Gil-Izquierdo A, Lamaison JL, Remesy C. 2005. Anthocyanin metabolism in rats and their distribution to digestive area, kidney, and brain. J Agric Food Chem 53(10):39028.
  • Tsuda T, Watanabe M, Ohshima K, Norinobu S, Choi SW, Kawakishi S, Osawa T. 1994. Antioxidative activity of the anthocyanin pigments cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucoside and cyanidin. J Agric Food Chem 42(11):240710.
  • Tsuda T, Ohshima K, Kawakishi S, Osawa T. 1996a. Oxidation products of cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucoside with a free radical initiator. Lipids 31(12):125963.
  • Tsuda T, Shiga K, Ohshima K, Kawakishi S, Osawa T. 1996b. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the active oxygen radical scavenging effect of anthocyanin pigments isolated from phaseolus vulgaris l. Biochem Pharmacol 52(7):10339.
  • Tsuda T, Horio F, Osawa T. 1998. Dietary cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucoside increases ex vivo oxidation resistance of serum in rats. Lipids 33(6):5838.
  • Tsuda T, Horio F, Kitoh J, Osawa T. 1999a. Protective effects of dietary cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucoside on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Arch Biochem Biophys 368(2):3616.
  • Tsuda T, Horio F, Osawa T. 1999b. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucoside in rats. FEBS Lett 449(2–3):17982.
  • Tsuda T, Horio F, Kato Y, Osawa T. 2002. Cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucoside attenuates the hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through a decrease in the neutrophil chemoattractant production in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 48(2):13441.
  • Walton MC, Lentle RG, Reynolds GW, Kruger MC, McGhie TK. 2006. Anthocyanin absorption and antioxidant status in pigs. J Agric Food Chem 54(20):79406.
  • Wang H, Cao GH, Prior RL. 1997. Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of anthocyanins. J Agric Food Chem 45(2):3049.
  • Wu X, Cao G, Prior RL. 2002. Absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins in elderly women after consumption of elderberry or blueberry. J Nutr 132(7):186571.
  • Wu X, Pittman HE, 3rd, Prior RL. 2004. Pelargonidin is absorbed and metabolized differently than cyanidin after marionberry consumption in pigs. J Nutr 134(10):260310.
  • Wu X, Pittman HE, 3rd, McKay S, Prior R. 2005. Aglycones and sugar moieties alter anthocyanin absorption and metabolism after berry consumption in weanling pigs. J Nutr 135:241724.
  • Wu X, Pittman HE, 3rd, Prior RL. 2006. Fate of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in contents of the gastrointestinal tract of weanling pigs following black raspberry consumption. J Agric Food Chem 54:5839.
  • Youdim KA, Martin A, Joseph JA. 2000. Incorporation of the elderberry anthocyanins by endothelial cells increases protection against oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 29(1):5160.