Influence of Fermentation Conditions on Glucosinolates, Ascorbigen, and Ascorbic Acid Content in White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) Cultivated in Different Seasons

Authors

  • C. Martinez-Villaluenga,

    1. Authors Martinez-Villaluenga, Peñas, Frias, and Vidal-Valverde are with Instituto de Fermentaciones (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain, and authors Ciska, Honke, Piskula, and Kozlowska are with Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-747 Olsztyn 5, Poland. Direct inquiries to author Vidal-Valverde (E-mail: ificv12@ifi.csic.es).
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  • E. Peñas,

    1. Authors Martinez-Villaluenga, Peñas, Frias, and Vidal-Valverde are with Instituto de Fermentaciones (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain, and authors Ciska, Honke, Piskula, and Kozlowska are with Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-747 Olsztyn 5, Poland. Direct inquiries to author Vidal-Valverde (E-mail: ificv12@ifi.csic.es).
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  • J. Frias,

    1. Authors Martinez-Villaluenga, Peñas, Frias, and Vidal-Valverde are with Instituto de Fermentaciones (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain, and authors Ciska, Honke, Piskula, and Kozlowska are with Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-747 Olsztyn 5, Poland. Direct inquiries to author Vidal-Valverde (E-mail: ificv12@ifi.csic.es).
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  • E. Ciska,

    1. Authors Martinez-Villaluenga, Peñas, Frias, and Vidal-Valverde are with Instituto de Fermentaciones (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain, and authors Ciska, Honke, Piskula, and Kozlowska are with Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-747 Olsztyn 5, Poland. Direct inquiries to author Vidal-Valverde (E-mail: ificv12@ifi.csic.es).
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  • J. Honke,

    1. Authors Martinez-Villaluenga, Peñas, Frias, and Vidal-Valverde are with Instituto de Fermentaciones (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain, and authors Ciska, Honke, Piskula, and Kozlowska are with Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-747 Olsztyn 5, Poland. Direct inquiries to author Vidal-Valverde (E-mail: ificv12@ifi.csic.es).
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  • M.K. Piskula,

    1. Authors Martinez-Villaluenga, Peñas, Frias, and Vidal-Valverde are with Instituto de Fermentaciones (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain, and authors Ciska, Honke, Piskula, and Kozlowska are with Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-747 Olsztyn 5, Poland. Direct inquiries to author Vidal-Valverde (E-mail: ificv12@ifi.csic.es).
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  • H. Kozlowska,

    1. Authors Martinez-Villaluenga, Peñas, Frias, and Vidal-Valverde are with Instituto de Fermentaciones (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain, and authors Ciska, Honke, Piskula, and Kozlowska are with Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-747 Olsztyn 5, Poland. Direct inquiries to author Vidal-Valverde (E-mail: ificv12@ifi.csic.es).
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  • C. Vidal-Valverde

    1. Authors Martinez-Villaluenga, Peñas, Frias, and Vidal-Valverde are with Instituto de Fermentaciones (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain, and authors Ciska, Honke, Piskula, and Kozlowska are with Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-747 Olsztyn 5, Poland. Direct inquiries to author Vidal-Valverde (E-mail: ificv12@ifi.csic.es).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 μmol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 μmol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 °C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 μmol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 μmol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases.

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