Development of a Risk-Ranking Framework to Evaluate Potential High-Threat Microorganisms, Toxins, and Chemicals in Food

Authors

  • R. Newsome,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • N. Tran,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • G.M. Paoli,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • L.A. Jaykus,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • B. Tompkin,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • M. Miliotis,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • T. Ruthman,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • E. Hartnett,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • F.F. Busta,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • B. Petersen,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • F. Shank,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • J. McEntire,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • J. Hotchkiss,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • M. Wagner,

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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  • D.W. Schaffner

    1. Authors Newsome and McEntire are with the Inst. of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. Authors Tran and Petersen are with Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Authors Paoli, Ruthman, and Hartnett are with Decisionalysis Risk Consultants, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H653. Author Jaykus is with North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, U.S.A. Author Tompkin is retired from ConAgra, La Grange, IL 60525, U.S.A. Author Miliotis is with the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition College Park, MD 20740, U.S.A. Author Busta is with the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense and Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. Author Shank is retired from the Inst. of Food Technologists, Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A. Author Hotchkiss is with Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. Author Wagner is with Mars Symbioscience, Rockville, MD 20850, U.S.A. Author Schaffner is with Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  Through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Institute of Food Technologists developed a risk-ranking framework prototype to enable comparison of microbiological and chemical hazards in foods and to assist policy makers, risk managers, risk analysts, and others in determining the relative public health impact of specific hazard–food combinations. The prototype is a bottom-up system based on assumptions that incorporate expert opinion/insight with a number of exposure and hazard-related risk criteria variables, which are propagated forward with food intake data to produce risk-ranking determinations. The prototype produces a semi-quantitative comparative assessment of food safety hazards and the impacts of hazard control measures. For a specific hazard–food combination the prototype can produce a single metric: a final risk value expressed as annual pseudo-disability adjusted life years (pDALY). The pDALY is a harmonization of the very different dose–response relationships observed for chemicals and microbes. The prototype was developed on 2 platforms, a web-based user interface and an Analytica® model (Lumina Decision Systems, Los Gatos, Calif., U.S.A.). Comprising visual basic language, the web-based platform facilitates data input and allows use concurrently from multiple locations. The Analytica model facilitates visualization of the logic flow, interrelationship of input and output variables, and calculations/algorithms comprising the prototype. A variety of sortable risk-ranking reports and summary information can be generated for hazard–food pairs, showing hazard and dose–response assumptions and data, per capita consumption by population group, and annual p-DALY.

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