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Influence of Extrusion Processing on Procyanidin Composition and Total Anthocyanin Contents of Blueberry Pomace

Authors

  • R.C. Khanal,

    1. Authors Khanal, Howard, and Brownmiller are with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72703, U.S.A. Author Prior is with USDA-ARS, Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR 72202, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Howard (E-mail: lukeh@uark.edu).
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  • L.R. Howard,

    1. Authors Khanal, Howard, and Brownmiller are with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72703, U.S.A. Author Prior is with USDA-ARS, Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR 72202, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Howard (E-mail: lukeh@uark.edu).
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  • C.R. Brownmiller,

    1. Authors Khanal, Howard, and Brownmiller are with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72703, U.S.A. Author Prior is with USDA-ARS, Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR 72202, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Howard (E-mail: lukeh@uark.edu).
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  • R.L. Prior

    1. Authors Khanal, Howard, and Brownmiller are with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72703, U.S.A. Author Prior is with USDA-ARS, Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR 72202, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Howard (E-mail: lukeh@uark.edu).
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  • Mention of a trade name, proprietary product, or specific equipment does not constitute a guarantee by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may be suitable.

Abstract

ABSTRACT:  Blueberry juice processing by-products are a rich source of procyanidins, which comprise a group of compounds shown to possess numerous health benefits, including protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. Most of the procyanidins present in blueberry pomace, however, are large molecular weight compounds that are poorly absorbed and show weak bioactivity compared to the smaller molecular weight monomers and dimers. The objective of our study was to identify optimal extrusion variables to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers. Extrusion variables temperature (160 and 180 °C) and screw speed (150 and 200 rpm) were tested using mixtures of blueberry pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and 45% moisture content. Extrudates were analyzed for procyanidin composition and total anthocyanin content. Extrusion of blueberry pomace increased the monomer, dimer, and trimer contents considerably at both temperature and screw speeds. The highest monomer content, obtained at 180 °C and 150 rpm screw speed, was 84% higher than the nonextruded control. Significantly higher levels of dimer and trimer contents were also obtained under these conditions. Increases in monomer, dimer, and trimer contents apparently were the result of reduced polymer contents, which was approximately 40% lower for samples extruded at 180 °C temperature and 150 rpm screw speed. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanin contents by 33% to 42% indicating that additional treatments are needed to retain the pigments. These results demonstrate that extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimers in blueberry pomace.

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