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Effect of Soybean Volatile Compounds on Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Production



ABSTRACT:  Soybean homogenates produced volatile compounds upon exposure to lipase. These induced volatiles were identified by SPME. Seventeen volatile compounds identified by SPME were chosen for determination of their ability to inhibit Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production in a solid media assay. These volatiles included aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and furans. Of the tested compounds, the aldehydes showed the greatest inhibition of fungal growth and AFB1 production. These compounds inhibited up to 100% of the observed growth and AFB1 production as compared to the controls. The greatest activity by the aldehydes to disrupt growth was ranked as follows: 2,4 hexadienal > benzaldehyde > 2-octenal > (E)-2-heptenal > octanal > (E)-2-hexenal > nonanal > hexanal. The greatest activity by the aldehydes to reduce AFB1 was ranked as follows: (E)-2-hexenal > 2,4 hexadienal > (E)-2-heptenal > hexanal > nonanal. (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-heptenal were tested further in an A. flavus-inoculated corn kernel assay. Both compounds prevented colonization by A. flavus and eliminated AFB1 production when exposed to compound volumes < 10 μL as also shown in the solid media assay. The results suggest that soybeans react to lipase by production of potent antifungal volatiles.