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Keywords:

  • BHA;
  • BHT;
  • photooxidation;
  • quenching;
  • singlet oxygen;
  • TBHQ

ABSTRACT:  Effects of synthetic phenolic antioxidants (BHA, BHT, and TBHQ) on the methylene blue (MB) sensitized photooxidation of linoleic acid as compared with that of α-tocopherol have been studied. Their antioxidative mechanism was studied by both ESR spectroscopy in a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidone (TMPD)-methylene blue (MB) system and spectroscopic analysis of rubrene oxidation induced by a chemical source of singlet oxygen. Total singlet oxygen quenching rate constants (kox−Q+kq) were determined using a steady state kinetic equation. TBHQ showed the strongest protective activity against the MB sensitized photooxidation of linoleic acid, followed by BHA and BHT. TBHQ (1 × 10−3 M) exhibited 86.5% and 71.4% inhibition of peroxide and conjugated diene formations, respectively, in linoleic acid photooxidation after 60-min light illumination. The protective activity of TBHQ against the photosensitized oxidation of linoleic acid was almost comparable to that of α-tocopherol. The data obtained from ESR and rubrene oxidation studies clearly showed the strong singlet oxygen quenching ability of TBHQ. The kox−Q+kq of BHA, BHT, and TBHQ were determined to be 3.37 × 107, 4.26 × 106, and 1.67 × 108 M−1 s−1, respectively. The kox−Q+kq of TBHQ was within the same order of magnitude of that of α-tocopherol, a known efficient singlet oxygen quencher. There was a high negative correlation (r2 = −0.991) between log (kox−Q+kq) and reported oxidation potentials for the synthetic antioxidants, indicating their charge-transfer mechanism for singlet oxygen quenching. This is the 1st report on the kinetic study on kox−Q+kq of TBHQ in methanol as compared with other commonly used commercial synthetic antioxidants and α-tocopherol.