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Keywords:

  • antioxidant;
  • chelator;
  • iron;
  • myoglobin oxidation

ABSTRACT:  This study compared myoglobin (Mb) oxidation in lipid-free model systems containing iron and Type I (radical quenching) or Type II (metal chelating) antioxidants. Oxidation was measured as loss of oxymyoglobin (MbO2) during 0 to 24 h holding at 22 °C. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) demonstrated iron-binding ability at all concentrations tested (88% and 21% added iron bound at 1 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively). Iron chelation was observed for phytic acid only at the highest concentration (9.5% bound at 1 mg/mL phytate). Neither Type I antioxidant (rosmarinate or eugenol) demonstrated any iron chelating ability (<0.5% bound). In presence of iron, Type I antioxidants had a significant (P < 0.05) prooxidant effect (54.7% retention of MbO2 in control, 9.5% and 37.5% retention in rosmarinate and eugenol samples, respectively). The Type II antioxidants (STPP and phytate) were more effective inhibitors (P < 0.05) of Mb oxidation than Type I antioxidants, (68.7% and 61.1% for STPP and phytate, respectively). Type I antioxidants were capable of rapid reduction of ferric iron to the ferrous form, as measured by the ferrozine assay. This strong reducing ability accounted for the prooxidant effects of rosmarinic acid and eugenol, since ferrous iron is the form associated with generation of oxygen radicals, and subsequent Mb oxidation. Type II antioxidants chelated and thus prevented the oxidizing effect of added ferrous iron. Mb oxidation can proceed rapidly (within 15 min) in the presence of iron and the absence of lipid, especially if reducing compounds such as rosmarinic acid or eugenol are also present to maintain iron in an active ferrous form.