Inverse Method to Estimate Kinetic Degradation Parameters of Grape Anthocyanins in Wheat Flour Under Simultaneously Changing Temperature and Moisture

Authors

  • K.P.K. Lai,

    1. Author Lai is with Kellogg Co., 2 Hamblin Rd., Battle Creek, MI 49017, U.S.A. Author Dolan is with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Dept. of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, 135 Trout Food Science Building, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A. Author Ng is with Dept. of Food Science & Human Nutrition, and Inst. of Intl. Agriculture, 135 GM Trout FSHN Building, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1224, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Dolan (E-mail: ngp@msu.edu).
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  • K.D. Dolan,

    1. Author Lai is with Kellogg Co., 2 Hamblin Rd., Battle Creek, MI 49017, U.S.A. Author Dolan is with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Dept. of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, 135 Trout Food Science Building, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A. Author Ng is with Dept. of Food Science & Human Nutrition, and Inst. of Intl. Agriculture, 135 GM Trout FSHN Building, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1224, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Dolan (E-mail: ngp@msu.edu).
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  • P.K.W. Ng

    1. Author Lai is with Kellogg Co., 2 Hamblin Rd., Battle Creek, MI 49017, U.S.A. Author Dolan is with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Dept. of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, 135 Trout Food Science Building, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A. Author Ng is with Dept. of Food Science & Human Nutrition, and Inst. of Intl. Agriculture, 135 GM Trout FSHN Building, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1224, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Dolan (E-mail: ngp@msu.edu).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  Thermal and moisture effects on grape anthocyanin degradation were investigated using solid media to simulate processing at temperatures above 100 °C. Grape pomace (anthocyanin source) mixed with wheat pastry flour (1: 3, w/w dry basis) was used in both isothermal and nonisothermal experiments by heating the same mixture at 43% (db) initial moisture in steel cells in an oil bath at 80, 105, and 145 °C. To determine the effect of moisture on anthocyanin degradation, the grape pomace–wheat flour mixture was heated isothermally at 80 °C at constant moisture contents of 10%, 20%, and 43% (db). Anthocyanin degradation followed a pseudo first-order reaction with moisture. Anthocyanins degraded more rapidly with increasing temperature and moisture. The effects of temperature and moisture on the rate constant were modeled according to the Arrhenius and an exponential relationship, respectively. The nonisothermal reaction rate constant and activation energy (mean ± standard error) were k80 °C, 43% (db) moisture = 2.81 × 10−4± 1.1 × 10−6 s−1 and ΔE = 75273 ± 197 J/g mol, respectively. The moisture parameter for the exponential model was 4.28 (dry basis moisture content)−1. One possible application of this study is as a tool to predict the loss of anthocyanins in nutraceutical products containing grape pomace. For example, if the process temperature history and moisture history in an extruded snack fortified with grape pomace is known, the percentage anthocyanin loss can be predicted.

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