Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester, an Antioxidant from Propolis, Protects Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Competitive Cyclists against Hyperthermal Stress

Authors

  • Yu-Jen Chen,

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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  • Ai-Chun Huang,

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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  • Hen-Hong Chang,

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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  • Hui-Fen Liao,

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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  • Chii-Ming Jiang,

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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  • Li-Yun Lai,

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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  • Jen-Te Chan,

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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  • Yu-Yawn Chen,

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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  • Jasson Chiang

    1. Authors Chen and Chiang are with Graduate Inst. of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Author Chen is with Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Author Huang is with Tzu Hui Inst. of Technology, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Author Chang is with Chang Gung Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Chang Gung Univ. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Author Liao is with Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Natl. Chiayi Univ., Chiayi, 300 Taiwan. Author Jiang is with Dept. of Seafood Science, Natl. Kaohsiung, Inst. of Marine Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan. Author Lai is with Dept. of Physical Education, Chinese Culture Univ., Taipei 111, Taiwan. Authors J-T Chan and Y-Y Chen are with Dept. and Graduate School of Physical Education, Natl. Taiwan Sport Univ., Taichung, Taiwan. Direct inquiries to corresponding authors Chen and Chiang (E-mail: jchiang@staff.pccu.edu.tw; yu11.tw@yahoo.com.tw).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  Hyperthermal stress and resulting free radical generation is known to impair endurance capacity and immune cell redistribution during prolonged exercise. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a phenolic compound purified from propolis, has many biological and pharmacological activities including antioxidation. To examine whether CAPE has protective effect against hyperthermal stress in athletes, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from competitive cyclists and assessed their response to hyperthermia with or without CAPE pretreatment. We found that pretreatment of cyclists' MNC with CAPE (0, 1, 2, 4 μg/mL) reversed or reduced hyperthermia-induced survival inhibition, necrosis, superoxide production, glutathione depletion, and intracellular superoxide burst in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that CAPE may enhance the hyperthermal tolerance in immune mononuclear cells of competitive cyclists.

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