Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Activity of Soy Phytoestrogen on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[α]anthracene-Induced Mammary Tumors Following Ovariectomy in Sprague–Dawley Rats



ABSTRACT:  Soy phytoestrogen is often used as hormone replacement therapy to alleviate the symptoms of menopause in postmenopausal women. Since estrogen has been considered as an important risk factor for the development of breast carcinoma, we need to know whether it is safe for these postmenopausal women with breast cancer to take soy foods that are rich in phytoestrogen. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of soy phytoestrogen on tumor proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in mammary tumors that had already formed in ovariectomized rats. We found that soy phytochemical extraction inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and it demonstrated better antitumor effects than single phytoestrogen. Soy phytochemical extraction also produced surprisingly good antiangiogenic effects, which were evidenced by lower microvascular density, reduced plasma vascular endothelial growth factor, and increased plasma endostatin levels. Our findings suggest that soy phytochemical extraction exerts significant antitumor and antiangiogenic activity in a postmenopausal animal model with breast cancer.