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Germination Conditions Affect Physicochemical Properties of Germinated Brown Rice Flour

Authors

  • Phantipha Charoenthaikij,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Piyachomkwan is with Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit, Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4200, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author K. Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Kamolwan Jangchud,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Piyachomkwan is with Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit, Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4200, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author K. Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Anuvat Jangchud,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Piyachomkwan is with Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit, Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4200, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author K. Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Kuakoon Piyachomkwan,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Piyachomkwan is with Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit, Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4200, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author K. Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Patcharee Tungtrakul,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Piyachomkwan is with Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit, Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4200, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author K. Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Witoon Prinyawiwatkul

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Piyachomkwan is with Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit, Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4200, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author K. Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and α-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, α-amylase activity, and free GABA.

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