Ultrasonic Investigation of the Effect of Vegetable Shortening and Mixing Time on the Mechanical Properties of Bread Dough
Article first published online: 30 SEP 2009
© 2009 Institute of Food Technologists®
Journal of Food Science
Volume 74, Issue 9, pages E455–E461, November/December 2009
How to Cite
Mehta, K.L., Scanlon, M.G., Sapirstein, H.D. and Page, J.H. (2009), Ultrasonic Investigation of the Effect of Vegetable Shortening and Mixing Time on the Mechanical Properties of Bread Dough. Journal of Food Science, 74: E455–E461. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01346.x
- Issue published online: 9 NOV 2009
- Article first published online: 30 SEP 2009
- MS 20090044 Submitted 1/16/2009, Accepted 6/24/2009.
- bakery ingredients;
- dough properties;
ABSTRACT: Mixing is a critical stage in breadmaking since it controls gluten development and nucleation of gas bubbles in the dough. Bubbles affect the rheology of the dough and largely govern the quality of the final product. This study used ultrasound (at a frequency where it is sensitive to the presence of bubbles) to nondestructively examine dough properties as a function of mixing time in doughs prepared from strong red spring wheat flour with various amounts of shortening (0%, 2%, 4%, 8% flour weight basis). The doughs were mixed for various times at atmospheric pressure or under vacuum (to minimize bubble nucleation). Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation (nominally at 50 kHz) were measured in the dough, and dough density was measured independently from specific gravity determinations. Ultrasonic velocity decreased substantially as mixing time increased (and more bubbles were entrained) for all doughs mixed in air; for example, in doughs made without shortening, velocity decreased from 165 to 105 ms−1, although superimposed on this overall decrease was a peak in velocity at optimum mixing time. Changes in attenuation coefficient due to the addition of shortening were evident in both air-mixed and vacuum-mixed doughs, suggesting that ultrasound was sensitive to changes in the properties of the dough matrix during dough development and to plasticization of the gluten polymers by the shortening. Due to its ability to probe the effect of mixing times and ingredients on dough properties, ultrasound has the potential to be deployed as an online quality control tool in the baking industry.