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Keywords:

  • cooking time;
  • meat;
  • PARAFAC;
  • synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

ABSTRACT:  In this study, the potential of synchronous front-face fluorescence coupled with chemometrics has been investigated for the analysis of cooked meat. Bovine meat samples (thin slices of 5 cm diameter) taken from Longissimus dorsi muscle were cooked at 237 °C for 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 min under control conditions. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectra were collected on meat samples in the excitation wavelength range of 250 to 550 nm using offsets (Δλ) of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, and 160 nm between excitation and emission wavelengths. The synchronous fluorescence landscape containing 360 spectra was analyzed using PARAFAC. The best PARAFAC model presented 2 components since core consistency values for the first 2 components were 100% and the explained variance was 67.98%. The loading profiles of 1st and 2nd components had an optimal Δλ of 70 and 40 nm, respectively, allowing to determine the excitation (exc.) and emission (em.) maxima wavelengths of 1st (fluorescence band at about exc.: 340 to 400/em.: 410 to 470 nm, and peak at exc.: 468/em.: 538 nm) and 2nd (exc.: 294 nm/em.: 334 nm) components. As the loading profile of the 1st component of PARAFAC was assigned to Maillard-reaction products formed during cooking, the profile of the 2nd component corresponded with the fluorescence characteristics of tryptophan residues in proteins. Loadings and scores of the PARAFAC model developed from the synchronous fluorescence spectra enabled to get information regarding the changes occurring in meat fluorophores during cooking of meat at 237 °C from 0 to 10 min.