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Effect of Salt, Smoke Compound, and Temperature on the Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon during Simulated Smoking Processes

Authors

  • Cheng-An Hwang,

    1. Authors are with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Hwang (E-mail: Andy.Hwang@ars.usda.gov).
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  • Shiowshuh Sheen,

    1. Authors are with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Hwang (E-mail: Andy.Hwang@ars.usda.gov).
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  • Vijay K. Juneja

    1. Authors are with Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Hwang (E-mail: Andy.Hwang@ars.usda.gov).
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  • Mention of trade names or commercial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

Abstract

ABSTRACT:  The objectives of this study were to examine and develop a model to describe the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in salmon as affected by salt, smoke compound (phenol), and smoking process temperature. Cooked minced salmon containing selected levels of salt (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) and smoke compound (0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm phenol) were inoculated with a 6-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes to an inoculum level of 6.0 log10 CFU/g. The populations of L. monocytogenes in salmon during processing at 40, 45, 50, and 55 °C that simulated cold- and hot-smoking process temperatures were determined, and the effects of salt, phenol, and temperature on the survival of L. monocytogenes in salmon were analyzed and described with an exponential regression. At 40 °C, the populations of L. monocytogenes in salmon decreased slightly with inactivation rates of <0.01 log10 CFU/h, and at 45, 50, and 55 °C, the inactivation rates were 0.01 to 0.03, 0.15 to 0.30, and 2.8 to 3.5 log10 CFU/h, respectively. An exponential regression model was developed and was shown to closely describe the inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes as affected by the individual and combined effects of salt, phenol, and smoking process temperature. Temperature was the main effector in inactivating L. monocytogenes while salt and phenol contributed additional inactivation effects. This study demonstrated the inactivation effects of salt, smoke compound, and temperature on L. monocytogenes in salmon under a smoking process. The data and model can be used by manufacturers of smoked seafood to select concentrations of salt and smoke compound and alternative smoking process temperatures at 40 to 55 °C to minimize the presence of L. monocytogenes in smoked seafood.

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