Analysis of Free-Radical Scavenging of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguriensis) using Electron Spin Resonance and Radical-Induced DNA Damage

Authors

  • Stephen S. Leonard,

    1. Authors Leonard and Hogans are with Health Effects Laboratory Div., Natl. Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Coppes-Petricorena is with Nutrition & Cancer Laboratory, Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Montevideo, Uruguay. Author Peer is with Dept. of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Vining is with Auroratrek, Billerica, MA, U.S.A. Author Fleming is with Davenport Univ., Livonia, MI, U.S.A. Author Harris is with Dept. of Food Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Leonard (E-mail: SEL5@CDC.GOV).
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  • Vallie J. Hogans,

    1. Authors Leonard and Hogans are with Health Effects Laboratory Div., Natl. Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Coppes-Petricorena is with Nutrition & Cancer Laboratory, Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Montevideo, Uruguay. Author Peer is with Dept. of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Vining is with Auroratrek, Billerica, MA, U.S.A. Author Fleming is with Davenport Univ., Livonia, MI, U.S.A. Author Harris is with Dept. of Food Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Leonard (E-mail: SEL5@CDC.GOV).
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  • Zulema Coppes-Petricorena,

    1. Authors Leonard and Hogans are with Health Effects Laboratory Div., Natl. Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Coppes-Petricorena is with Nutrition & Cancer Laboratory, Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Montevideo, Uruguay. Author Peer is with Dept. of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Vining is with Auroratrek, Billerica, MA, U.S.A. Author Fleming is with Davenport Univ., Livonia, MI, U.S.A. Author Harris is with Dept. of Food Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Leonard (E-mail: SEL5@CDC.GOV).
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  • Cody J. Peer,

    1. Authors Leonard and Hogans are with Health Effects Laboratory Div., Natl. Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Coppes-Petricorena is with Nutrition & Cancer Laboratory, Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Montevideo, Uruguay. Author Peer is with Dept. of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Vining is with Auroratrek, Billerica, MA, U.S.A. Author Fleming is with Davenport Univ., Livonia, MI, U.S.A. Author Harris is with Dept. of Food Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Leonard (E-mail: SEL5@CDC.GOV).
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  • Timothy A. Vining,

    1. Authors Leonard and Hogans are with Health Effects Laboratory Div., Natl. Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Coppes-Petricorena is with Nutrition & Cancer Laboratory, Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Montevideo, Uruguay. Author Peer is with Dept. of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Vining is with Auroratrek, Billerica, MA, U.S.A. Author Fleming is with Davenport Univ., Livonia, MI, U.S.A. Author Harris is with Dept. of Food Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Leonard (E-mail: SEL5@CDC.GOV).
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  • David W. Fleming,

    1. Authors Leonard and Hogans are with Health Effects Laboratory Div., Natl. Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Coppes-Petricorena is with Nutrition & Cancer Laboratory, Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Montevideo, Uruguay. Author Peer is with Dept. of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Vining is with Auroratrek, Billerica, MA, U.S.A. Author Fleming is with Davenport Univ., Livonia, MI, U.S.A. Author Harris is with Dept. of Food Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Leonard (E-mail: SEL5@CDC.GOV).
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  • Gabriel K. Harris

    1. Authors Leonard and Hogans are with Health Effects Laboratory Div., Natl. Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Coppes-Petricorena is with Nutrition & Cancer Laboratory, Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Montevideo, Uruguay. Author Peer is with Dept. of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV, U.S.A. Author Vining is with Auroratrek, Billerica, MA, U.S.A. Author Fleming is with Davenport Univ., Livonia, MI, U.S.A. Author Harris is with Dept. of Food Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Leonard (E-mail: SEL5@CDC.GOV).
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  • The findings and conclusions in the article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Natl Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health.

Abstract

ABSTRACT:  Mate (MT) is a popular South American beverage that has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries, spurring recent interest in its nutraceutical properties. MT is prepared as an infusion of leaves from the Yerba Mate (llex paraguriensis) tree. MT has been reported to have antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo, but these have not been fully characterized in terms of effects against specific radicals. Accordingly, we examined the antioxidant effects of an MT infusion against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in both chemical and cell culture assays. MT infusions were prepared at 3.10 g/L in boiling water and diluted to experimental dilutions from this stock. Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments indicated that MT scavenged hydroxyl radicals (produced via the Fenton reaction) and superoxide radicals (produced via the xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzymatic reaction) at all concentrations tested (P < 0.05). Further controls indicated that superoxide radical scavenging was not due to xanthine oxidase inhibition. MT scavenged hydroxyl radicals and decreased cellular oxygen consumption in a dose-dependent manner in Cr(VI)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, based on ESR and oxygraph measurements (P < 0.05). Similarly, MT also inhibited hydroxyl-radical-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells, based on malondialdehyde and Comet assay data (P < 0.05). This study indicates that MT possesses potent antioxidant effects against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in both chemical and cell culture systems, as well as DNA-protective properties. These data further clarify the reported antioxidant effects of Yerba Mate infusions.

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