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Germination Conditions Affect Selected Quality of Composite Wheat-Germinated Brown Rice Flour and Bread Formulations

Authors

  • Phantipha Charoenthaikij,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803-4200, U.S.A. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Direct inquiries to author Kamolwan Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Kamolwan Jangchud,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803-4200, U.S.A. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Direct inquiries to author Kamolwan Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Anuvat Jangchud,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803-4200, U.S.A. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Direct inquiries to author Kamolwan Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Witoon Prinyawiwatkul,

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803-4200, U.S.A. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Direct inquiries to author Kamolwan Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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  • Patcharee Tungtrakul

    1. Authors Charoenthaikij, K. Jangchud, and A. Jangchud are with Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Author Prinyawiwatkul is with Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803-4200, U.S.A. Author Tungtrakul is with Inst. of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., 50 Pahonyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Direct inquiries to author Kamolwan Jangchud (E-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th).
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Abstract

Abstract:  Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 °C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 – 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 – 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance.

Practical Application:  Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further study is thus needed.

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