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Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits and Leaves of Paprika (Capsicum Annuum L., var. Special) Cultivated in Korea

Authors

  • Ji-Sun Kim,

    1. Author Kim is with Food and Nutrition in Home Economics, College of Natural Sciences, Korea Natl. Open Univ., 169 Dongsung-Dong, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, 110-791, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim, Ahn, and Ha are with Functional Food Technology Research Group, Emerging Innovative Technology Div., Korea Food Research Inst., Sungnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 463-746, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim and Lee are with Div. of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Inst. of Biomedical Sciences and Food Safety, Korea Univ., Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea. Author Moon is with Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang Univ., 72-1 Nae-ri, Daedeok-myeon, Anseoung-si, Gyeonggi-do 456-756, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: suna7@knou.ac.kr).
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  • Jiyun Ahn,

    1. Author Kim is with Food and Nutrition in Home Economics, College of Natural Sciences, Korea Natl. Open Univ., 169 Dongsung-Dong, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, 110-791, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim, Ahn, and Ha are with Functional Food Technology Research Group, Emerging Innovative Technology Div., Korea Food Research Inst., Sungnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 463-746, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim and Lee are with Div. of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Inst. of Biomedical Sciences and Food Safety, Korea Univ., Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea. Author Moon is with Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang Univ., 72-1 Nae-ri, Daedeok-myeon, Anseoung-si, Gyeonggi-do 456-756, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: suna7@knou.ac.kr).
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  • Sung-Joon Lee,

    1. Author Kim is with Food and Nutrition in Home Economics, College of Natural Sciences, Korea Natl. Open Univ., 169 Dongsung-Dong, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, 110-791, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim, Ahn, and Ha are with Functional Food Technology Research Group, Emerging Innovative Technology Div., Korea Food Research Inst., Sungnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 463-746, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim and Lee are with Div. of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Inst. of Biomedical Sciences and Food Safety, Korea Univ., Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea. Author Moon is with Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang Univ., 72-1 Nae-ri, Daedeok-myeon, Anseoung-si, Gyeonggi-do 456-756, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: suna7@knou.ac.kr).
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  • BoKyung Moon,

    1. Author Kim is with Food and Nutrition in Home Economics, College of Natural Sciences, Korea Natl. Open Univ., 169 Dongsung-Dong, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, 110-791, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim, Ahn, and Ha are with Functional Food Technology Research Group, Emerging Innovative Technology Div., Korea Food Research Inst., Sungnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 463-746, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim and Lee are with Div. of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Inst. of Biomedical Sciences and Food Safety, Korea Univ., Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea. Author Moon is with Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang Univ., 72-1 Nae-ri, Daedeok-myeon, Anseoung-si, Gyeonggi-do 456-756, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: suna7@knou.ac.kr).
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  • Tae-Youl Ha,

    1. Author Kim is with Food and Nutrition in Home Economics, College of Natural Sciences, Korea Natl. Open Univ., 169 Dongsung-Dong, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, 110-791, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim, Ahn, and Ha are with Functional Food Technology Research Group, Emerging Innovative Technology Div., Korea Food Research Inst., Sungnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 463-746, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim and Lee are with Div. of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Inst. of Biomedical Sciences and Food Safety, Korea Univ., Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea. Author Moon is with Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang Univ., 72-1 Nae-ri, Daedeok-myeon, Anseoung-si, Gyeonggi-do 456-756, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: suna7@knou.ac.kr).
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  • Suna Kim

    1. Author Kim is with Food and Nutrition in Home Economics, College of Natural Sciences, Korea Natl. Open Univ., 169 Dongsung-Dong, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, 110-791, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim, Ahn, and Ha are with Functional Food Technology Research Group, Emerging Innovative Technology Div., Korea Food Research Inst., Sungnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 463-746, Republic of Korea. Authors Kim and Lee are with Div. of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Inst. of Biomedical Sciences and Food Safety, Korea Univ., Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea. Author Moon is with Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang Univ., 72-1 Nae-ri, Daedeok-myeon, Anseoung-si, Gyeonggi-do 456-756, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: suna7@knou.ac.kr).
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Abstract

Abstract:  The phytochemical composition of carotenoids, tocopherols, free sugars, organic acids, L-ascorbic acid, capsaicinoids, and flavonoids in green and red paprika (GP and RP), and paprika leaves (PL) cultivated in Korea were analyzed. The ethanolic extracts of GP, RP, and PL were obtained with 80% ethanol, and their antioxidative activities were determined by measuring their ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. RP showed the highest contents of capsanthin (58.33 ± 3.91 mg/100 g dry weight) and L-ascorbic acid (1987.25 ± 19.64 mg/100 g dry weight), and main compounds of PL were lutein, chlorophyll, and γ-tocopherol (96.91 ± 14.58, 2136.71 ± 21.11, and 723.49 ± 54.10 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively). RP showed the strongest antioxidant activity (IC50= 55.23 ± 6.77 μg/mL in a 2, 2′-azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate] assay and 150.40 ± 8.07 μg/mL in a 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay), and the antioxidant activity of PL was higher than β-carotene but lower than RP. The results indicate that the amounts of capsanthin and L-ascorbic acid in RP correlate well with antioxidant activity. PL, which has various phytochemicals such as lutein, chlorophyll, and γ-tocopherol, might be used in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals for improving human health.

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