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Effects of Salting Processes and Time on the Chemical Composition, Textural Properties, and Microstructure of Cooked Duck Egg

Authors

  • Thammarat Kaewmanee,

    1. Authors Kaewmanee and Benjakul are with Dept. of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand. Author Visessanguan is with Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Natl. Science and Technology Development Agency, 113 Phaholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand. Direct inquiries to author Benjakul (Email: soottawat.b@psu.ac.th).
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  • Soottawat Benjakul,

    1. Authors Kaewmanee and Benjakul are with Dept. of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand. Author Visessanguan is with Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Natl. Science and Technology Development Agency, 113 Phaholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand. Direct inquiries to author Benjakul (Email: soottawat.b@psu.ac.th).
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  • Wonnop Visessanguan

    1. Authors Kaewmanee and Benjakul are with Dept. of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand. Author Visessanguan is with Natl. Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Natl. Science and Technology Development Agency, 113 Phaholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand. Direct inquiries to author Benjakul (Email: soottawat.b@psu.ac.th).
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Abstract

Abstract:  Chemical composition, textural properties, and microstructure of cooked duck egg salted by 2 methods (coating and immersing) were determined during 4 wk of salting. As the salting time increased, moisture content increased and salt content decreased for both cooked salted egg white and yolk. Oil exudation of cooked yolk and expressible water content of cooked egg white obtained from both salting methods increased as salting proceeded (P < 0.05). After cooking, oil exudation accompanied by the solubilized pigments, especially at the outer layer of yolk, was obtained. At week 3 of salting, egg yolk from coating method had the higher egg exudation than that from immersing method. As the salting times increased, the lower hardness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience with higher adhesiveness and cohesiveness were generally found in cooked salted egg white (P < 0.05), irrespective of salting methods. Conversely, the hardness of cooked yolk increased continuously and reached the maximum at week 2 and 2 to 3 for immersing and coating method (P < 0.05), respectively. Confocal laser scanning micrographs revealed the smaller yolk granules with more release of free lipid in salted egg after heating, compared with the fresh counterpart. As visualized by scanning electron microscope, gel of cooked salted egg white was coagulum type with larger voids. Salting methods determined oil exudation in egg yolk and texture profile of egg white gel after cooking; however, those attributes were also governed by the salting time.

Practical Application:  Salted duck egg can be made by 2 methods (coating and immersing) affecting the characteristic of salted egg white and yolk after cooking. Desirable cooked salted egg having the red yolk with hardness and high oil exudation could be obtained when salting was carried out for 3 and 4 wk for immersing and coating method, respectively.

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