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Neuroprotective Effect of Caffeoylquinic Acids from Artemisia princeps Pampanini against Oxidative Stress-Induced Toxicity in PC-12 Cells

Authors

  • Sang Gil Lee,

    1. Authors S.G. Lee, H. Lee, Nam, C.Y. Lee, and Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Inst. of Life Sciences and Resources, and author Eom is with Dept. of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin, Gyeonggi 446–701, Republic of Korea. Author Heo is with Div. of Applied Life Sciences, Inst. of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang Natl. Univ., Jinju 660–701, Republic of Korea. Author C.Y. Lee is also with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: dokim05@khu.ac.kr).
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  • Hyungjae Lee,

    1. Authors S.G. Lee, H. Lee, Nam, C.Y. Lee, and Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Inst. of Life Sciences and Resources, and author Eom is with Dept. of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin, Gyeonggi 446–701, Republic of Korea. Author Heo is with Div. of Applied Life Sciences, Inst. of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang Natl. Univ., Jinju 660–701, Republic of Korea. Author C.Y. Lee is also with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: dokim05@khu.ac.kr).
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  • Tae Gyu Nam,

    1. Authors S.G. Lee, H. Lee, Nam, C.Y. Lee, and Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Inst. of Life Sciences and Resources, and author Eom is with Dept. of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin, Gyeonggi 446–701, Republic of Korea. Author Heo is with Div. of Applied Life Sciences, Inst. of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang Natl. Univ., Jinju 660–701, Republic of Korea. Author C.Y. Lee is also with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: dokim05@khu.ac.kr).
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  • Seok Hyun Eom,

    1. Authors S.G. Lee, H. Lee, Nam, C.Y. Lee, and Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Inst. of Life Sciences and Resources, and author Eom is with Dept. of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin, Gyeonggi 446–701, Republic of Korea. Author Heo is with Div. of Applied Life Sciences, Inst. of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang Natl. Univ., Jinju 660–701, Republic of Korea. Author C.Y. Lee is also with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: dokim05@khu.ac.kr).
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  • Ho Jin Heo,

    1. Authors S.G. Lee, H. Lee, Nam, C.Y. Lee, and Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Inst. of Life Sciences and Resources, and author Eom is with Dept. of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin, Gyeonggi 446–701, Republic of Korea. Author Heo is with Div. of Applied Life Sciences, Inst. of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang Natl. Univ., Jinju 660–701, Republic of Korea. Author C.Y. Lee is also with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: dokim05@khu.ac.kr).
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  • Chang Yong Lee,

    1. Authors S.G. Lee, H. Lee, Nam, C.Y. Lee, and Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Inst. of Life Sciences and Resources, and author Eom is with Dept. of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin, Gyeonggi 446–701, Republic of Korea. Author Heo is with Div. of Applied Life Sciences, Inst. of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang Natl. Univ., Jinju 660–701, Republic of Korea. Author C.Y. Lee is also with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: dokim05@khu.ac.kr).
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  • Dae-Ok Kim

    1. Authors S.G. Lee, H. Lee, Nam, C.Y. Lee, and Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Inst. of Life Sciences and Resources, and author Eom is with Dept. of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin, Gyeonggi 446–701, Republic of Korea. Author Heo is with Div. of Applied Life Sciences, Inst. of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang Natl. Univ., Jinju 660–701, Republic of Korea. Author C.Y. Lee is also with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: dokim05@khu.ac.kr).
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Abstract

Abstract:  Phenolics in dry Artemisia princeps Pampanini, an herbal plant traditionally consumed as food ingredients in Korea was extracted, fractionated, and quantified as well as evaluated for its neuroprotection for PC-12 cells. Whole extract had 5,852 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of total phenolics and 6,274 mg and 9,698 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 g of antioxidant capacities assayed by DPPH and ABTS radicals, respectively. The fraction extracted with n-butanol had the highest levels of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than the other fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Using a reversed-phase HPLC system, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and its derivatives such as 3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, 1,5-diCQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA were isolated and quantified. The whole extract and its n-butanol fraction yielded 3,5-diCQA with the highest amount, which consisted of approximately 36.8% and 33.5%, respectively. The whole extract, the n-butanol fraction, and 3,5-diCQA showed neuroprotective effect on PC-12 cells under the insult of amyloid ß peptide in a dose-dependent manner. Treatments of the whole extract and the n-butanol fraction for PC-12 cells under oxidative stress increased approximately 1.6 and 2.4 times higher cell viability, compared with the control without treatments. For PC-12 cells treated with 3,5-diCQA, intracellular oxidative stress decreased by 51.3% and cell viability increased up to 2.8 times compared to the control with oxidative insult of amyloid ß peptide only. These results indicate that phenolics from A. princeps Pampanini alleviated the oxidative stress and enhanced the viability of PC-12 cells, suggesting that it may be applied as a dietary antineurodegenerative agent in functional foods.

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