Volatile Compounds in Light, Medium, and Dark Black Walnut and Their Influence on the Sensory Aromatic Profile
Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011
© 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Journal of Food Science
Volume 76, Issue 2, pages C199–C204, March 2011
How to Cite
Lee, J., Vázquez-Araújo, L., Adhikari, K., Warmund, M. and Elmore, J. (2011), Volatile Compounds in Light, Medium, and Dark Black Walnut and Their Influence on the Sensory Aromatic Profile. Journal of Food Science, 76: C199–C204. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.02014.x
- Issue published online: 1 MAR 2011
- Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011
- MS 20100656 Submitted 6/12/2010, Accepted 11/24/2010.
- descriptive sensory analysis;
- headspace-solid phase microextraction;
- Juglans nigra;
- volatile compounds
Abstract: Light, medium, and dark colored kernels from 3 different cultivars (Emma K, Kwik Krop, and Sparks 127) and one wild species of black walnut were studied for their aroma volatiles. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the aromatic compounds present in the headspace of these samples. Partial least square regression was used to correlate the instrumental aromatic data with the sensory responses, obtained in a previous study, for the same samples. Thirty-four aromatic compounds were found in the black walnut cultivars, highlighting among them the presence of 14 esters. Although more than 50% of the total concentration of volatile compounds, esters were not important compounds in determining the differences in the sensory aromatic profiles of the 3 colors of the nuts. As a general trend, the concentration of total volatile compounds was always significantly higher in light black walnuts than in the medium colored samples; medium colored samples had higher volatile content than the dark black walnuts. The presence of hexanal was related to rancid and acrid aromas and was determined to differentiate the dark black walnuts from the medium and light colored samples.
Practical Application: The data presented in this article will help understand the aromatic differences between light, medium, and dark colored kernels of domestic and wild black walnut. The aromatic profile of these nuts, not studied until this moment, can be used as a model to develop flavorings and new products by the food industries.