Abstract: Emulsifying properties and acid tolerance are 2 of the most important characteristics of cream. The effects of the buttermilk component, especially its phospholipids, on the emulsifying properties and acid tolerance of cream were investigated in this study. Two buttermilks with differing phospholipid contents and skimmed milk were used to evaluate the effects of phospholipids on the aforementioned parameters. The mean diameter of fat globules and the cream viscosity were used as indicators of emulsifying properties. Acid tolerance was evaluated by studying the effect of citric acid on the maximum viscosity of cream. This was tested by adding 400 μL of 10% (w/w) citric acid solution to cream every minute and simultaneously measuring pH and viscosity. In 45% and 40% fat cream systems, buttermilk, and especially that with higher phospholipid content, improved the emulsifying properties and acid tolerance of the cream. The components of buttermilk could alter the properties of the surface of fat globules, thereby altering the emulsification properties of the cream. However, neither of the tested buttermilks affected the emulsifying properties and acid tolerance of lower-fat (35% and 30%) cream systems. Emulsifying components exist in proportionately larger amounts in lower-fat creams, which could render the emulsifying properties resistant to change. The number of fat globules may also influence acid-induced changes in viscosity. The addition of phospholipids or lysophospholipids did not improve the acid tolerance of creams, a finding that may be attributable to the formation of complexes of phospholipids and protein.
Practical Application: The findings presented herein demonstrate the ability to improve the acid tolerance of cream using materials derived from milk. Implementing these findings appropriately may result in a high-quality cooking cream.