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Efficiency of Trapping Methylglyoxal by Phenols and Phenolic Acids



Abstract:  The carbonyl stress that leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has drawn much attention recently because of its micro- and macrovascular implications. During monitoring of methylglyoxal (MG), the efficiency of phenolics to directly trap MG can be demonstrated. Twenty compounds consisting of a single benzene ring structure with the addition of at least one hydroxyl group were allowed to react with MG at 37 °C for 1 h under physiological conditions in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution. Compounds composed of a benzene structure with a mono-hydroxyl substitute cannot react with MG. Among benzenediols and di-hydroxyl benzoic acids, only hydroquinone reacted with MG and showed a 13% decrease in MG. Nevertheless, high reactivity was shown for 3 benzenetriols. The percentages of MG remaining were 45%, 51%, and 36% for pyrogallol, 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, respectively. When a carboxyl group is added to the benzenetriols, steric hindrance and carbon electron charges on benzene ring are the influential factors in reactivity. Using computational chemistry calculations, a carbon electron charge of −0.24 was the minimum value for high reactivity.