• fermented soybean paste (Doenjang);
  • gas chromatography-mass spectrometry;
  • principal component analysis;
  • volatile compounds;
  • volatile profiling

Abstract:  In this study, 2 different extraction methods, namely solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), were employed to investigate the comprehensive volatile profile of Doenjang (one of Korean fermented soybean pastes) efficiently. Quantitatively, major volatiles of Doenjang isolated by SAFE were 3-methylbutanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (maltol), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methylpropanoic acid, tetramethylpyrazine, and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, while ethanol, ethenylbenzene, ethyl benzoate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, tetramethylpyrazine, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate extracted by SPME. In addition, volatile profiling that applied principal component analysis to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry datasets allowed Doenjang samples that had been prepared using different traditional and commercial methods to be discriminated, and the volatile compounds that contributed to their discrimination were assigned. The major volatiles that were related to differentiation of traditional and commercial Doenjang samples were 2-pentylfuran, 4-ethylphenol, dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone, butanoic acid, pyrazines (for example, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine), esters (for example, ethyl 4-methylpentanoate and diethyl succinate), maltol, dimethyl disulfide, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 4-vinylphenol, and ethanol.