Effect of Proteolysis and Calcium Equilibrium on Functional Properties of Natural Cheddar Cheese during Ripening and the Resultant Processed Cheese

Authors

  • Fang Wang,

    1. Authors Wang, Zhang, Luo, Guo, and Ren are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Zeng is with Dept. of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Langston Univ., Langston, OK 73050, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Ren (E-mail: renfazheng@263.net).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Xiaoying Zhang,

    1. Authors Wang, Zhang, Luo, Guo, and Ren are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Zeng is with Dept. of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Langston Univ., Langston, OK 73050, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Ren (E-mail: renfazheng@263.net).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jie Luo,

    1. Authors Wang, Zhang, Luo, Guo, and Ren are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Zeng is with Dept. of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Langston Univ., Langston, OK 73050, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Ren (E-mail: renfazheng@263.net).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Huiyuan Guo,

    1. Authors Wang, Zhang, Luo, Guo, and Ren are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Zeng is with Dept. of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Langston Univ., Langston, OK 73050, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Ren (E-mail: renfazheng@263.net).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Steve S. Zeng,

    1. Authors Wang, Zhang, Luo, Guo, and Ren are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Zeng is with Dept. of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Langston Univ., Langston, OK 73050, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Ren (E-mail: renfazheng@263.net).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Fazheng Ren

    1. Authors Wang, Zhang, Luo, Guo, and Ren are with College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Zeng is with Dept. of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Langston Univ., Langston, OK 73050, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Ren (E-mail: renfazheng@263.net).
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Abstract:  The changes in proteolysis, calcium (Ca) equilibrium, and functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses during ripening and the resultant processed cheeses were investigated. For natural Cheddar cheeses, the majority of the changes in pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen (pH 4.6 SN/TN) and the soluble Ca content occurred in the first 90 d of ripening, and subsequently, the changes were slight. During ripening, functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses changed, that is, hardness decreased, meltability was improved, storage modulus at 70 °C (G′T = 70) decreased, and the maximum tan delta (TDmax) increased. Both pH 4.6 SN/TN and the soluble Ca were correlated with changes in functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses during ripening. Kendall's partial correlation analysis indicated that pH 4.6 SN/TN was more significantly correlated with changes in hardness and TDmax. For processed cheeses manufactured from natural Cheddar cheeses with different ripening times, the soluble Ca content did not show significant difference, and the trends of changes in hardness, meltability, G′T = 70, and TDmax were similar to those of natural Cheddar cheeses. Kendall's partial correlation analysis suggested that only pH 4.6 SN/TN was significantly correlated with the changes in functional properties of processed cheeses.

Ancillary