Abstract: Comparative studies were conducted in this paper to investigate the effects of added dietary fiber (DF) and/or phenolic antioxidants on the properties of bread dough and finished bread. Breads were developed in the absence (control bread), or presence of apple pectin and/or fruit phenolic extracts (treated breads), and subjected to quality evaluation (attributes including color, weight, and volume) and characterization of chemical and rheological properties. Chemical analyses revealed that breads with added phenolic extracts had greater antioxidant activity and higher extractable phenolic content, than control bread and the treated breads with added apple pectin(s). The measured antioxidant activity was mainly derived from the phenolics present in bread. Storage modulus G′ (elasticity) and loss modulus G″ (viscocity) of the treated bread dough with added pectin(s) only were higher than those of control dough. The G′ or G″ of the treated breads incorporated with a combination of a pectin and fruit phenolic extract depended on the type of phenolic extract (that is, apple and blackcurrant extracts behaved differently from kiwifruit extract). The G′ and G″ at the final baking step were higher than those of other stages, indicating an increase in cross-linking among polymeric molecules and bread particles of high molecular weight. We conclude that the added pectin and/or phenolic extract had influenced bread dough cross-linking microstructure and bread properties through being involved in the interactions with bread components such as wheat proteins during dough development and bread baking.
Practical Application: Dietary fibers and phytochemicals (including phenolic antioxidants) have long been recognized as the active nutrients responsible for the health benefits of fruit and vegetables to humans. Interest in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods like bread has grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the development of bread dough. This paper reports the findings associated with the properties of the functional breads enhanced with apple pectin and apple, blackcurrant, and kiwifruit phenolic extracts. Results of this paper indicate that the success of the development of such functional breads is ultimately determined by the interactions among added bioactive ingredients and other bread components.