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Oregano: Chemical Analysis and Evaluation of Its Antimalarial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities

Authors

  • Fatiha El Babili,

    1. Author El Babili is with Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Botanique-Mycologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 ch. des Maraîchers, F- 31062 Toulouse, France. Authors El Babili, Fouraste, Moulis, and Valentin are with Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox, UMR 152, UPS and authors Bouajila, Souchard are with Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, Univ. de Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. Authors Bertrand and Bellvert are with Univ. de Lyon, Lyon F-69003, France, Univ. Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622, France, Centre d’Etude des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne F-69622, France. Direct inquiries to author Bouajila (E-mail: bouajila@cict.fr, elbabili@cict.fr).
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  • Jalloul Bouajila,

    1. Author El Babili is with Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Botanique-Mycologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 ch. des Maraîchers, F- 31062 Toulouse, France. Authors El Babili, Fouraste, Moulis, and Valentin are with Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox, UMR 152, UPS and authors Bouajila, Souchard are with Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, Univ. de Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. Authors Bertrand and Bellvert are with Univ. de Lyon, Lyon F-69003, France, Univ. Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622, France, Centre d’Etude des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne F-69622, France. Direct inquiries to author Bouajila (E-mail: bouajila@cict.fr, elbabili@cict.fr).
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  • Jean Pierre Souchard,

    1. Author El Babili is with Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Botanique-Mycologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 ch. des Maraîchers, F- 31062 Toulouse, France. Authors El Babili, Fouraste, Moulis, and Valentin are with Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox, UMR 152, UPS and authors Bouajila, Souchard are with Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, Univ. de Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. Authors Bertrand and Bellvert are with Univ. de Lyon, Lyon F-69003, France, Univ. Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622, France, Centre d’Etude des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne F-69622, France. Direct inquiries to author Bouajila (E-mail: bouajila@cict.fr, elbabili@cict.fr).
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  • Cédric Bertrand,

    1. Author El Babili is with Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Botanique-Mycologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 ch. des Maraîchers, F- 31062 Toulouse, France. Authors El Babili, Fouraste, Moulis, and Valentin are with Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox, UMR 152, UPS and authors Bouajila, Souchard are with Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, Univ. de Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. Authors Bertrand and Bellvert are with Univ. de Lyon, Lyon F-69003, France, Univ. Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622, France, Centre d’Etude des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne F-69622, France. Direct inquiries to author Bouajila (E-mail: bouajila@cict.fr, elbabili@cict.fr).
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  • Florian Bellvert,

    1. Author El Babili is with Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Botanique-Mycologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 ch. des Maraîchers, F- 31062 Toulouse, France. Authors El Babili, Fouraste, Moulis, and Valentin are with Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox, UMR 152, UPS and authors Bouajila, Souchard are with Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, Univ. de Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. Authors Bertrand and Bellvert are with Univ. de Lyon, Lyon F-69003, France, Univ. Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622, France, Centre d’Etude des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne F-69622, France. Direct inquiries to author Bouajila (E-mail: bouajila@cict.fr, elbabili@cict.fr).
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  • Isabelle Fouraste,

    1. Author El Babili is with Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Botanique-Mycologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 ch. des Maraîchers, F- 31062 Toulouse, France. Authors El Babili, Fouraste, Moulis, and Valentin are with Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox, UMR 152, UPS and authors Bouajila, Souchard are with Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, Univ. de Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. Authors Bertrand and Bellvert are with Univ. de Lyon, Lyon F-69003, France, Univ. Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622, France, Centre d’Etude des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne F-69622, France. Direct inquiries to author Bouajila (E-mail: bouajila@cict.fr, elbabili@cict.fr).
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  • Claude Moulis,

    1. Author El Babili is with Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Botanique-Mycologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 ch. des Maraîchers, F- 31062 Toulouse, France. Authors El Babili, Fouraste, Moulis, and Valentin are with Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox, UMR 152, UPS and authors Bouajila, Souchard are with Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, Univ. de Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. Authors Bertrand and Bellvert are with Univ. de Lyon, Lyon F-69003, France, Univ. Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622, France, Centre d’Etude des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne F-69622, France. Direct inquiries to author Bouajila (E-mail: bouajila@cict.fr, elbabili@cict.fr).
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  • Alexis Valentin

    1. Author El Babili is with Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Botanique-Mycologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 ch. des Maraîchers, F- 31062 Toulouse, France. Authors El Babili, Fouraste, Moulis, and Valentin are with Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox, UMR 152, UPS and authors Bouajila, Souchard are with Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, Univ. de Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. Authors Bertrand and Bellvert are with Univ. de Lyon, Lyon F-69003, France, Univ. Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622, France, Centre d’Etude des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, UMR 5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne F-69622, France. Direct inquiries to author Bouajila (E-mail: bouajila@cict.fr, elbabili@cict.fr).
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Abstract

Abstract:  GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of essential oil from oregano leaves (Origanum compactum) resulted in the identification of 46 compounds, representing more than 98% of the total composition. Carvacrol was the predominant compound (36.46%), followed by thymol (29.74%) and p-cymene (24.31%). Serial extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water were performed on aerials parts of Origanum compactum. In these extracts, different chemical families were characterized: polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent 21.2 to 858.3 g/kg), tannins (catechin equivalent 12.4 to 510.3 g/kg), anthocyanins (cyanidin equivalent 0.38 to 5.63 mg/kg), and flavonoids (quercetin equivalent 14.5 to 54.7 g/kg). The samples (essential oil and extracts) were subjected to a screening for antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS assays) and antimalarial activities and against human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed a higher antioxidant activity with an IC50= 2 ± 0.1 mg/L. Among the extracts, the aqueous extract had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC50= 4.8 ± 0.2 mg/L (DPPH assay). Concerning antimalarial activity, Origanum compactum essential oil and ethyl acetate extract showed the best results with an IC50 of 34 and 33 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, ethyl acetate extract (30 mg/L) and ethanol extract (56 mg/L) showed activity against human breast cancer cells (MCF7). The oregano essential oil was considered to be nontoxic.

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