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Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect Against Plasmid DNA Strand Scission of Leaf, Bark, and Heartwood Extracts from Acacia catechu

Authors

  • Sanjay Guleria,

    1. Authors Guleria, Tiku, and Singh are with Div. of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, SK Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha 180 009, Jammu, India. Authors Vyas and Bhardwaj are with Biodiversity and Applied Botany Div., Indian Insti. of Integrative Medicine (CSIR, India), Canal Road, Jammu 180 001, India. Direct inquiries to author Guleria (E-mail: guleria71@gmail.com).
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  • A.K. Tiku,

    1. Authors Guleria, Tiku, and Singh are with Div. of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, SK Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha 180 009, Jammu, India. Authors Vyas and Bhardwaj are with Biodiversity and Applied Botany Div., Indian Insti. of Integrative Medicine (CSIR, India), Canal Road, Jammu 180 001, India. Direct inquiries to author Guleria (E-mail: guleria71@gmail.com).
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  • Gurjinder Singh,

    1. Authors Guleria, Tiku, and Singh are with Div. of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, SK Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha 180 009, Jammu, India. Authors Vyas and Bhardwaj are with Biodiversity and Applied Botany Div., Indian Insti. of Integrative Medicine (CSIR, India), Canal Road, Jammu 180 001, India. Direct inquiries to author Guleria (E-mail: guleria71@gmail.com).
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  • Dhiraj Vyas,

    1. Authors Guleria, Tiku, and Singh are with Div. of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, SK Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha 180 009, Jammu, India. Authors Vyas and Bhardwaj are with Biodiversity and Applied Botany Div., Indian Insti. of Integrative Medicine (CSIR, India), Canal Road, Jammu 180 001, India. Direct inquiries to author Guleria (E-mail: guleria71@gmail.com).
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  • Ashwani Bhardwaj

    1. Authors Guleria, Tiku, and Singh are with Div. of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, SK Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha 180 009, Jammu, India. Authors Vyas and Bhardwaj are with Biodiversity and Applied Botany Div., Indian Insti. of Integrative Medicine (CSIR, India), Canal Road, Jammu 180 001, India. Direct inquiries to author Guleria (E-mail: guleria71@gmail.com).
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Abstract

Abstract:  The antioxidant activity of methanol extract/fractions of leaf, bark, and heartwood of Acacia catechu was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical, superoxide and hydroxyl radical, reducing power, metal ion chelation, as well as hydroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission. The leaf, bark, and heartwood powder was extracted in methanol and the lyophilized methanol extract was fractionated with different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. The results indicate that ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood has the highest antioxidant capacities, presenting lower EC50 values particularly in free radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals (4.76 ± 0.14 μg/mL), superoxide anions (26.21 ± 0.79 μg/mL), and hydroxyl radicals (33.69 ± 1.42 μg/mL), in direct assay systems. Reducing power was also highest in ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood (EC50 of 79.05 ± 1.02 μg/mL). As for the chelating power on ferrous ions, leaf extract was more effective than bark and heartwood extracts. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of heartwood significantly protected pBR322 supercoiled plasmid DNA against strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton's reaction mixture.

Practical Application:  The present investigation suggests that the three organs of A. catechu differ significantly in their antioxidant potential as seen in the DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay, metal ion chelating assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Further, our results showed that crude methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood of A. catechu might have a good potential as a source for natural health products due to its antioxidant and DNA protective activities.

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