Total Phenolic Content, Consumer Acceptance, and Instrumental Analysis of Bread Made with Grape Seed Flour
Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011
© 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Journal of Food Science
Volume 76, Issue 7, pages S428–S436, September 2011
How to Cite
Hoye, Jr, C. and Ross, C. F. (2011), Total Phenolic Content, Consumer Acceptance, and Instrumental Analysis of Bread Made with Grape Seed Flour. Journal of Food Science, 76: S428–S436. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02324.x
- Issue published online: 20 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011
- MS 20110306 Submitted 3/9/2011, Accepted 6/23/2011.
- antioxidant activity;
- functional food;
- sensory evaluation
Abstract: Grape seed flour (GSF) from grape pomace, a waste product generated during winemaking, was explored for use in bread production due to its potential health benefits. This study evaluated the consumer acceptance and physical properties of bread, including total phenolic content (TPC), made with varying levels of GSF. Dough and breads were prepared using different levels of replacement of hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) with GSF (0 to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS) and stored for 0, 2, or 6 wk at −20 °C. Replacement of 10 g GSF/100 g HRS increased the bread TPC from 0.064 mg tannic acid/g dry weight to 4.25 mg tannic acid/g dry weight. Consumer acceptance and instrumental analyses were used to investigate changes in sensory and texture properties due to GSF replacement. Replacement above 5 g GSF/100 g HRS decreased the loaf brightness and volume, with an increase in the bread hardness and porosity. Generally, breads containing ≥ 7.5 g GSF/100 g HRS were characterized by lower consumer acceptance. A reduction in overall and bitterness acceptance was observed in bread at 10 g GSF/100 g HRS, with decreased acceptance of astringency and sweetness at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Based on these results, the replacement of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads with acceptable physical and sensory properties and high TPC activity compared to refined bread.
Practical Applications: This study shows that grape seed flour (GSF) can be used to replace hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) in bread production, with moderate impact on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Replacement of up to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS significantly decreased overall consumer acceptance of the bread, with lower consumer acceptance of sweetness and astringency at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Thus, a replacement value of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads.