Abstract: Asthma and many autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, have been reported to associate with vitamin D deficiency recently. Growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α)/CXCL1, a neutrophil-related chemokine, have an important influence on the chronic inflammation of these diseases. It is unknown whether vitamin D has regulatory effects on GRO-α expression in human monocytes. To this end, the human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1, and human primary monocytes were pretreated with 1α, 25-(OH)2D3, and was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Supernatants were collected to determine GRO-α level by ELISA. The intracellular signaling was investigated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, and Western blot. In our studies, LPS-induced GRO-α was significantly enhanced in THP-1 cells, but suppressed in human primary monocytes by 1α,
25-(OH)2D3. Western blotting revealed that 1α, 25-(OH)2D3 increased LPS-stimulated pp38 expression in THP-1 cells, but suppressed LPS-stimulated pMEK1/2-pERK and pJNK in human primary monocytes. In conclusion, the opposite effects of 1α, 25-(OH)2D3 on GRO-α expression in THP-1 cells and human primary monocytes indicated that the data from THP-1 cells should be further confirmed by human primary monocytes. Moreover, vitamin D3 may have potentiality in treating GRO-α-related chronic inflammatory diseases, like asthma and autoimmune diseases.