• d-limonene;
  • flavor retention;
  • medium-chain triglycerides;
  • microencapsulation;
  • oil load

Abstract:  Oil mixtures of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and d-limonene in mixing ratios from 10 to 100 wt% were encapsulated in modified starch (wall material) by spray drying to produce oil-rich powders. The oil load (mass ratio of oil mixture to wall material) of the infeed emulsion markedly influenced the properties of the infeed liquid and the characteristics of the resulting powder. The viscosity of the infeed liquid and the particle size of the powder exponentially decreased with increasing oil load, while the emulsion droplet size in the infeed liquid increased. In addition, retention of d-limonene during spray drying also decreased markedly with increasing oil load. Irrespective of the different oil loads and concentrations of the wall material, d-limonene retention was well correlated with the emulsion droplet diameter of the infeed liquid. The encapsulation efficiency of the oil mixture exhibited a maximum value (almost 100%) at an oil load between 0.5 and 1.0, before decreasing at higher oil loads. At an oil load of 2.0, the encapsulation efficiency of d-limonene was reduced to almost zero, while around 40% of the initial MCT was encapsulated in the powder. The increase in oil load also led to increased amounts of surface oil of MCT and d-limonene in the resulting powder due to the increasing emulsion droplet diameter of the infeed liquids.

Practical Application:  This study proposes the microencapsulation of medium-chain triglycerides under high-oil-load conditions by spray drying. The powders prepared by this process provide significant benefits in terms of rapid energy conversion after consumption without accumulation in the body. Important quality factors of the powder products such as the encapsulation efficiency and the amount of surface oil were examined to understand the optimum process conditions for spray drying.