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Keywords:

  • alcoholic beverage;
  • HPLC;
  • mulberry;
  • polyphenols;
  • SPME-GC/MS;
  • volatile compounds

Abstract:  Mulberry fruits have different chemical compositions because of cultivar variation. In this study, polyphenol profile and volatile composition of alcoholic beverages produced from different mulberries of Da 10, Hongguo 2 hao, and Hongguo 1 hao were investigated. Statistically significant differences were detected in the chemical composition of the analyzed alcoholic beverage samples. The beverage of Da 10 possessed the highest content of total phenols, total flavonoids, and total anthocyanins, which was determined by spectrophotometry analysis, contrarily Hongguo 1 hao beverage showing the lowest. Phenolic acids and flavonols were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Protocatechuic acid was the main phenolic acid in all analyzed alcoholic beverage samples, and its concentration ranged from 8.20 mg L−1 (Hongguo 1 hao beverage) to 29.98 mg L−1 (Da 10 beverage). High level of flavonols was found in both Da 10 and Hongguo 2 hao beverage samples, whereas Hongguo 1 hao beverage sample was characterized with lower level of flavonols. Furthermore, volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The amount of esters varied widely among the 3 alcoholic beverage samples. The concentration of aliphatic alcohols in Hongguo 2 hao and 1 hao beverage samples was higher than Da 10 sample, whereas Da 10 beverage sample contained more aromatic alcohols than the others. Hongguo 1 beverage sample showed the highest concentration of acetic acid. This study demonstrated that quantitative differences of phenolic compounds and volatile compounds among cultivars were significant, which highly affected the quality of alcoholic beverage from mulberry.

Practical Application:  Mulberry fruits had different chemical compositions because of cultivar variation. The analyzed Da 10 cultivar of mulberry appeared to be a good raw material for alcoholic beverage-making because of its high level of total sugar and acidity. This study demonstrated that alcoholic beverages from mulberry contain high amounts of polyphenols. These bioactive compounds may act synergistically to promote health, and reduce risk factors of chronic diseases.