Volatile Aroma Components and Antioxidant Activities of the Flavedo Peel Extract of Unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata)

Authors

  • Yonathan Asikin,

    1. Authors Asikin, Takara, and Wada are with United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kagoshima Univ., 1–21–24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890–0065, Japan. Authors Taira, Inafuku, Takara, and Wada are with Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Univ. of the Ryukyus, 1-Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903–0213, Japan. Author Sumi is with Ogimi Village Office, 157-Oganeku, Ogimi, Okinawa 905–1392, Japan. Author Sawamura is with Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi Univ., B200-Monobe, Nankoku 783–8502, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Wada (E-mail: kojiwada@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp).
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  • Ikuko Taira,

    1. Authors Asikin, Takara, and Wada are with United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kagoshima Univ., 1–21–24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890–0065, Japan. Authors Taira, Inafuku, Takara, and Wada are with Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Univ. of the Ryukyus, 1-Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903–0213, Japan. Author Sumi is with Ogimi Village Office, 157-Oganeku, Ogimi, Okinawa 905–1392, Japan. Author Sawamura is with Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi Univ., B200-Monobe, Nankoku 783–8502, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Wada (E-mail: kojiwada@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp).
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  • Sayuri Inafuku,

    1. Authors Asikin, Takara, and Wada are with United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kagoshima Univ., 1–21–24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890–0065, Japan. Authors Taira, Inafuku, Takara, and Wada are with Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Univ. of the Ryukyus, 1-Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903–0213, Japan. Author Sumi is with Ogimi Village Office, 157-Oganeku, Ogimi, Okinawa 905–1392, Japan. Author Sawamura is with Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi Univ., B200-Monobe, Nankoku 783–8502, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Wada (E-mail: kojiwada@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp).
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  • Hidekazu Sumi,

    1. Authors Asikin, Takara, and Wada are with United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kagoshima Univ., 1–21–24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890–0065, Japan. Authors Taira, Inafuku, Takara, and Wada are with Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Univ. of the Ryukyus, 1-Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903–0213, Japan. Author Sumi is with Ogimi Village Office, 157-Oganeku, Ogimi, Okinawa 905–1392, Japan. Author Sawamura is with Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi Univ., B200-Monobe, Nankoku 783–8502, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Wada (E-mail: kojiwada@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp).
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  • Masayoshi Sawamura,

    1. Authors Asikin, Takara, and Wada are with United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kagoshima Univ., 1–21–24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890–0065, Japan. Authors Taira, Inafuku, Takara, and Wada are with Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Univ. of the Ryukyus, 1-Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903–0213, Japan. Author Sumi is with Ogimi Village Office, 157-Oganeku, Ogimi, Okinawa 905–1392, Japan. Author Sawamura is with Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi Univ., B200-Monobe, Nankoku 783–8502, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Wada (E-mail: kojiwada@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp).
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  • Kensaku Takara,

    1. Authors Asikin, Takara, and Wada are with United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kagoshima Univ., 1–21–24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890–0065, Japan. Authors Taira, Inafuku, Takara, and Wada are with Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Univ. of the Ryukyus, 1-Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903–0213, Japan. Author Sumi is with Ogimi Village Office, 157-Oganeku, Ogimi, Okinawa 905–1392, Japan. Author Sawamura is with Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi Univ., B200-Monobe, Nankoku 783–8502, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Wada (E-mail: kojiwada@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp).
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  • Koji Wada

    1. Authors Asikin, Takara, and Wada are with United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kagoshima Univ., 1–21–24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890–0065, Japan. Authors Taira, Inafuku, Takara, and Wada are with Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Univ. of the Ryukyus, 1-Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903–0213, Japan. Author Sumi is with Ogimi Village Office, 157-Oganeku, Ogimi, Okinawa 905–1392, Japan. Author Sawamura is with Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi Univ., B200-Monobe, Nankoku 783–8502, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Wada (E-mail: kojiwada@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp).
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Abstract

Abstract:  The flavedo peel extracts of unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) fruits were extracted using steam distillation (SD) or a cold-press (CP) system. Volatile aroma content and composition were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and each compound was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of the extracts were monoterpene hydrocarbons (91.75–93.75%[709.32–809.05 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]) including limonene (43.08–45.13%[341.46–379.81 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), γ-terpinene (27.88–29.06%[219.90–245.86 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), and p-cymene (8.13–11.02%[61.47–97.22 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]). The extraction process used was determined to be a decisive factor that affects the composition of key citrus aroma components, as well as the antioxidant activities of the Shiikuwasha fruit. Antioxidant capabilities of the extracts were examined by assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching inhibition. The cold-press extraction system may better retain the total phenolic content of the flavedo peel and display superior antioxidant activities, compared to the steam distillation extraction method.

Practical Application:  Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) is a type of small citrus fruit, and has been used as raw material for beverage and food additive productions in Japan. It had a unique aroma composition in which the limonene content of its peels is lower than that of other commonly known citrus peels. The present study detailed the volatile aroma composition, as well as antioxidant capabilities of Shiikuwasha peel extracts of different extraction methods, that are cold-press and steam distillation methods. The results of this study may provide a basis for selection of Shiikuwasha peel extracts in food industry for citrus flavor production.

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