Abstract: Total of 4 pattern recognition methods for the authentication of pure camellia oil applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were evaluated in this study. Total of 115 samples were collected and their authenticities were confirmed by gas chromatography (GC) in according to China Natl. Standard (GB). A preliminary study of NIR spectral data was analyzed by unsupervised methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Total of 2 supervised classification techniques based on discriminant analysis (DA) and radical basis function neural network (RBFNN) were utilized to build calibration model and predict unknown samples. In the wavenumber range of 6000 to 5750 cm−1, correct classification rate of both supervised and unsupervised solutions all can reach 98.3% when smoothing, first derivative, and autoscaling were used. The good performance showed that NIR spectroscopy with multivariate calibration models could be successfully used as a rapid, simple, and nondestructive method to discriminate pure camellia oil.