Abstract: An improved high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established to rapidly and simultaneously determine 3 main alkaloids (arecoline, arecaidine, and guvacine) in areca (betel) nuts (AN), and 12 AN samples from the main betel palm growing areas on the Chinese Mainland were collected and determined. Semen samples from acceptable volunteers were treated in vitro with different concentrations of the 3 alkaloids to evaluate the effects on sperm motility (SM). Highly motile spermatozoa were selected from the samples and divided into 5 equal fractions. Various concentrations of each alkaloid were added to 4 of the 5 fractions, and 1 fraction was used as a control. All fractions were incubated for 4 h. A computer-aided sperm analysis system was used to measure 5 SM parameters, motility, average path velocity, straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, linearity, and amplitude of lateral head displacement. The results showed that the contents of the amount of alkaloids in AN differed markedly in different places in China and were higher in the kernel than in the husk, and higher in dried AN than in fresh AN. Arecoline had the strongest reduction effect on human SM and the effect was strongly dose dependent. Arecaidine had a much weaker reduction effect than arecoline, and guvacine had the least reduction effect. These findings also demonstrate that betel quid could have adverse effects on the gonadal functions of betel quid consumers.