SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Testing and more testing, by new and combination methods, is the subject of many of these papers. As the hue and cry for safer foods gets louder, and the supply of money for analysis shrinks, more efficient testing appears to be the key to providing the safer food that everyone wants, at a price that doesn't substitute starvation for foodborne illness.

Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Anabolic steroids became common in animal agriculture during the 1950s: They made the cattle grow faster and be more effective at feed use—however, it is suspected that residues of the steroids cause human disease, such as renal and liver function disorders, among other human physical ailments. The use of natural and synthetic hormones for growth promotion purposes in meat-producing animals has been prohibited. But not everyone follows the rules, so tests to determine whether anabolic steroid residues remain in beef for human consumption are under development. A study reported in “Establishment and Optimization of Monoclonal Antibody-based Heterologous dcELISA for 19-Nortestosterone Residue in Bovine Edible Tissue” found that under good conditions, the dc ELISA test identified the presence of the particular anabolic steroid of interest, performing quickly and efficiently. P T63-T69

Fast Track to Salmonella Detection

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a novel molecular detection method that is specific, fast, and simple. It is based on reverse transcription followed by DNA amplification using the Bst DNA polymerase large fragment, requiring 1 temperature and a simple waterbath, without the need for any expensive equipment. S. enteritidis is reportedly on the rise since about mid-2009. It's identification by this new method is described in “Reverse-Transcriptase Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification as a Rapid Screening/Monitoring Tool for Salmonella Enterica Detection in Liquid Whole Eggs.” The “egg plague” has increased by more than 30% since 2008 in the U.K.. In the U.S., PulseNet declared that the number of S. enteritidis infection cases had increased 4-fold just from the beginning of the year until May 2010, according to the CDC. The test can be completed in 24 h, and it may be possible to set up a real-time testing program. P M200-M205

Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Patulin is one of several secondary metabolites of common fungi that grow on apples (and also pears, peaches, apricots, and grapes) and can cause convulsions, lung congestion, and several other relatively nasty health problems when consumed. They are a special problem for children, and not too many years ago, there was a considerable stir about PAT in apple juice. The metabolites are recognized as carcinogenic. FAO/WHO has established a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for PAT of 0.4 μg/kg body weight. Getting rid of the stuff is somewhat difficult, although conventional methods such as clarification, filtration, and chemical addition (for example, ascorbic acid) have been developed to reduce the level of PAT in food stuffs, adding significantly to the cost of producing safe fruit products. In “Reduction of Patulin in Aqueous Solution by Lactic Acid Bacteria,” researchers reported their work in the use of lactic acid bacteria as a removal technique to eliminate or at least reduce patulin from fruit products. The lactic acid bacteria tested are those used in making probiotic foods. The information isn't complete, but the concept shows promise. P M238-M241

Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Many traditional foods, when translated into commercial products, are compared with the “original”, presumably from home-prepared fare. In the paper “Dry Fermented Sausages of Southern Italy: A Comparison of Free Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines between Industrial and Homemade Products,” the compounds produced in the dry sausages are compared and other parameters are evaluated. Both industrial and homemade “soppressata” and “salsiccia,” which are typical dry-fermented sausages produced in Southern Italy, were analyzed. The authors found that “homemade sausages showed a higher level of free biogenic amines than that manufactured industrially, most likely because biogenic amine formulated in commercially produced sausage is limited by the use of starter cultures. The industrial sausages are characterized by higher total free amino acid content than the homemade products. Overall, free amino acid and biogenic amine contents demonstrated that noticeable differences exist between homemade and industrial sausages.” But among the differences were better control of fermentation and microbial content, and there is no indication in the paper of preference for homemade over industrially-prepared. So, consumers are free to make their comparisons, and if Grandma was a good cook…P S116-S121

New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Wow, that's strong coffee! So a Turkish scientist decided to determine how effective the chlorogenic acid, a major antioxidant in coffee, is for various brews. In “Electrochemical Behavior of Chlorogenic Acid at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode and Estimation of the Antioxidant Capacity in the Coffee Samples Based on Its Oxidation Peak,” the research shows that an electroanalytical methodology for the determination of chlorogenic acid (CGA) was possible by using a boron-doped diamond electrode under adsorptive transfer stripping voltammetric conditions. Those values were then used to estimate the antioxidant properties of the coffee sample based on CGA oxidation. The developed protocol was successfully applied for the analysis of antioxidant capacity in products such as Turkish coffee and instant coffee. It has been shown that CGA has a broad range of physiological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and antioxidant. CGA is the main cause of bitter taste in coffee, so methods to rid coffee of bitterness may be the wrong way to go. Being able to determine how much CGA is in the coffee is a first step toward standardizing coffee flavor at an acceptable level. P C408-C413

Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Camellia oil, the derivative of a tea seed, is a low-volume (currently 260,000 lb) liquid oil called “eastern olive oil” and “the king of cooking oil.” Camellia oil is rich in Vitamins A, B, and E, and has no cholesterol. It is rich in oleic acid (almost 85% of its fatty acid compositions), and other essential fatty acids such as omega-6 linoleic acid. The quantity produced is expected to grow, and methods are needed to quickly and efficiently identify which oils are authentic Camellia oil. In the paper titled “Authentication of Pure Camellia Oil by Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition Techniques,” researchers evaluated many samples and confirmed genuine oils using a standardized technique. A positive performance showed that NIR spectroscopy with multivariate calibration models could be successfully used as a rapid, simple, and nondestructive method to discriminate pure camellia oil. P C190-C196

Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

In “Bioactivities of Chicken Essence,” a group of scientists studied the health effects of chicken essence. According to the researchers, “chicken essence has been found to contain many bioactivities that reduce stress and fatigue, ameliorate anxiety, promote metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improve hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhance the immune system, and so on.” As we’ve all been told to have some chicken soup when ill health threatens, it is good to know that the healing qualities of this magical fluid are related to its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids. The underlying mechanisms are related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. This paper is a literature review, so there are no Eureka moments; however, a table listing effects of the essence and probable mechanisms provides some insight. P R105-R110

Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Tofu is a major source of protein in Asian countries, and is becoming extremely popular in the Americas as well. In “Improving Surface Functional Properties of Tofu Whey-Derived Peptides by Chemical Modification with Fatty Acids,” researchers discuss the problem of improving the surface of tofu and reducing the whey-like liquid that oozes from the surface. The study indicated that that chemical modification with fatty acids can affect functional properties of soy proteins, reducing the ooze. The current condition with tofu whey is that the liquid is treated like a by-product and is discarded, at some expense and with some difficulty. Useful compounds, such as phytochemicals and proteins, are discarded with the whey, when they could be used as source materials. Researchers concluded that “acylation can affect the functional properties of soy-derived peptides. However, the effect depends on peptide source and extent of modification. Tofu whey was used as a cheap source of peptides. Modified soy 7S and 11S peptides could be useful as a novel emulsifier in food processing. Therefore, enzymatic and chemical modification have proved to be useful in the conversion of food processing by-products into value-added surfactants peptides to improve agricultural sustainability through recycling of waste.”P C333-C339

Keeping Mamey Happy

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Mamey, a popular winter fruit in Mexico and South America, is a bright red-orange tropical fruit with very low shelf-life. It would make a very good addition to winter fare, but rots very quickly. The researchers for “In situ Inactivation of Polyphenol Oxidase in Mamey Fruit (Pouteria sapota) by Microwave Treatment” sought to use microwave treatment to provide a longer use for the flesh of the fruit. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is the enzyme responsible for quality loss in most fruits and vegetables. Quality loss in mamey fruit is mainly because of oxidative chemical reactions which generate the darkening of tissues. Mamey fruit after harvesting suffers rapid quality decay through activation of PPO. However, PPO may be inactivated in situ by chemical or thermal treatment. In food processing, microwave treatment (MT) has been used recently as an alternative for PPO inactivation. But one must hit the PPO with higher heat, because gentle heating generates higher amounts of PPO and faster rotting. Heating with microwaves to the level necessary to inactivate the PPO did not damage the microstructure of Mamey flesh, while traditional blanching– while effective– damaged the microstructure, while deactivating PPO. Mamey fruit flesh is sold frozen by a couple of South American processing firms. P C359-C365

Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Cinnamomum camphora (lauraceae) is found in China, and the seed oil extracted from the small evergreen tree has a unique fatty acid profile: As much as 94% of total fatty acids were medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) (capric acid, C10:0, 53.27%; lauric acid, C12:0, 39.93%). MCT's have been prized for their ability to provide a plastic fat without trans-esterifying the oils. Instead of classical trans-esterification, the oil is treated with a lipase. In “Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Stearin with Cinnamomum camphora Seed Oil to Produce Zero-trans Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols-Enriched Plastic Fat,” a description of the unusual fatty acid profile is included. P C454-C460

Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

Black cumin seeds are widely used in Southeast Asian and Turkish cuisine. The flavor is somewhat bitter, and the seeds are used in folk medicine. There has been little information about the volatile oils, so in “Volatile Compounds of Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.) from Microwave-Heating and Conventional Roasting,” researchers sought to identify the oils and determine how they changed when the seed oils were roasted by various methods. Among the 38 volatile compounds identified, the major compounds were thymoquinone and p-cymene in all samples. The levels of these compounds decreased with roasting. However, concentrations of pyrazines and furans increased significantly as a result of roasting and these compounds may affect the flavor of roasted black cumin seeds. Methyl pyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were major pyrazines, formed at high concentration in seeds roasted for 8 min and in conventional roasting. P C481-C484

Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

In “The Role of Salivary Proteins in the Mechanism of Astringency,” researchers studied the mechanisms of astringent compounds tannin, alum, and hydrochloric acid, finding that the precipitation of salivary proteins may be involved in the mechanism of astringency, but the precipitation of PRPs is not requisite for the development of astringency. Furthermore, astringent sensations arising from acid, alum, and tannins are not completely identical in terms of their perceptual intensities of their drying, puckering, and roughing subqualities. At this point, most of the work on astringent characteristics has been done on tannins. This paper may mark a beginning in better understanding of this quality. P C381-C387

Better Buckwheat

  1. Top of page
  2. Anabolic Steroids Identified by a Fast Test
  3. Fast Track to Salmonella Detection
  4. Decontamination of the Rotten Apple in the Barrel
  5. Is It Like Grandma Used to Make?
  6. New Method Identifies Antioxidant Capacity in Coffee
  7. Authenticating Pure Camellia Oil Provides the Prime Oil from Tea
  8. Now We’ll Get to the Bottom of the Chicken Soup Legend
  9. Solving the Problems of Tofu Whey
  10. Keeping Mamey Happy
  11. Chinese Tree Provides Unique Fatty Acids
  12. Flavors of Black Cumin Are Characterized
  13. Studies into the Mechanisms of Astringent Flavors
  14. Better Buckwheat

What's the problem with buckwheat? In wet years, the pseudograin builds up a high microbial count that is hard to remove. It is high enough sometimes to prevent export of the grain from the U.S., and the problem appears universal, depending on local weather conditions. Several methods of reducing the microbial load have been used, but without total success. In “Improved Microbial Quality of Buckwheat using Antimicrobial Solutions in a Fluidized Bed,” researchers met success, and make suggestions for improvements on the systems that may be lower in cost. P E98-E103