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Activity of Caprylic Acid, Carvacrol, ɛ-Polylysine and their Combinations against Salmonella in Not-Ready-to-Eat Surface-Browned, Frozen, Breaded Chicken Products

Authors

  • Galatios Moschonas,

    1. Authors Moschonas, Geornaras, Woerner, Belk, Smith, and Sofos are with Center for Meat Safety & Quality, Dept. of Animal Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523–1171, USA. Authors Stopforth and Wach are with Purac America Inc., 111 Barclay Blvd Suite 100, Lincolnshire, IL 60069, USA. Direct inquiries to author Sofos (E-mail: john.sofos@colostate.edu).
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  • Ifigenia Geornaras,

    1. Authors Moschonas, Geornaras, Woerner, Belk, Smith, and Sofos are with Center for Meat Safety & Quality, Dept. of Animal Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523–1171, USA. Authors Stopforth and Wach are with Purac America Inc., 111 Barclay Blvd Suite 100, Lincolnshire, IL 60069, USA. Direct inquiries to author Sofos (E-mail: john.sofos@colostate.edu).
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  • Jarret D. Stopforth,

    1. Authors Moschonas, Geornaras, Woerner, Belk, Smith, and Sofos are with Center for Meat Safety & Quality, Dept. of Animal Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523–1171, USA. Authors Stopforth and Wach are with Purac America Inc., 111 Barclay Blvd Suite 100, Lincolnshire, IL 60069, USA. Direct inquiries to author Sofos (E-mail: john.sofos@colostate.edu).
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  • Damien Wach,

    1. Authors Moschonas, Geornaras, Woerner, Belk, Smith, and Sofos are with Center for Meat Safety & Quality, Dept. of Animal Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523–1171, USA. Authors Stopforth and Wach are with Purac America Inc., 111 Barclay Blvd Suite 100, Lincolnshire, IL 60069, USA. Direct inquiries to author Sofos (E-mail: john.sofos@colostate.edu).
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  • Dale R. Woerner,

    1. Authors Moschonas, Geornaras, Woerner, Belk, Smith, and Sofos are with Center for Meat Safety & Quality, Dept. of Animal Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523–1171, USA. Authors Stopforth and Wach are with Purac America Inc., 111 Barclay Blvd Suite 100, Lincolnshire, IL 60069, USA. Direct inquiries to author Sofos (E-mail: john.sofos@colostate.edu).
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  • Keith E. Belk,

    1. Authors Moschonas, Geornaras, Woerner, Belk, Smith, and Sofos are with Center for Meat Safety & Quality, Dept. of Animal Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523–1171, USA. Authors Stopforth and Wach are with Purac America Inc., 111 Barclay Blvd Suite 100, Lincolnshire, IL 60069, USA. Direct inquiries to author Sofos (E-mail: john.sofos@colostate.edu).
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  • Gary C. Smith,

    1. Authors Moschonas, Geornaras, Woerner, Belk, Smith, and Sofos are with Center for Meat Safety & Quality, Dept. of Animal Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523–1171, USA. Authors Stopforth and Wach are with Purac America Inc., 111 Barclay Blvd Suite 100, Lincolnshire, IL 60069, USA. Direct inquiries to author Sofos (E-mail: john.sofos@colostate.edu).
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  • John N. Sofos

    1. Authors Moschonas, Geornaras, Woerner, Belk, Smith, and Sofos are with Center for Meat Safety & Quality, Dept. of Animal Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523–1171, USA. Authors Stopforth and Wach are with Purac America Inc., 111 Barclay Blvd Suite 100, Lincolnshire, IL 60069, USA. Direct inquiries to author Sofos (E-mail: john.sofos@colostate.edu).
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Abstract

Abstract:  Caprylic acid (CAA), carvacrol (CAR), ɛ-polylysine (POL), and their combinations were evaluated for reduction of Salmonella contamination in not-ready-to-eat surface-browned, frozen, breaded chicken products. Fresh chicken breast meat pieces (5 × 5 × 5 cm) were inoculated with Salmonella (7-strain mixture; 4–5 log CFU/g) and mixed with distilled water (control) or with CAA, CAR, and POL as single or combination treatments of 2 or 3 ingredients. Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all formulations, followed by grinding of the mixtures and forming into 9 × 5 × 3 cm portions. Sample surfaces were brushed with egg whites, coated with breadcrumbs, surface-browned in an oven (208 °C, 15 min), packaged, and stored at –20 °C (7 d). Total reductions of inoculated Salmonella in untreated (control) surface-browned, breaded products after frozen storage were 0.8 to 1.4 log CFU/g. In comparison, single treatments of CAA (0.25% to 1.0%), CAR (0.3% to 0.5%), and POL (0.125% to 1.0%) reduced counts by 2.9 to at least 4.5, 3.4 to at least 4.4, and 1.4 to 2.3 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on concentration. Pathogen counts of products treated with 2- or 3-ingredient combination treatments (0.03125% to 0.25% CAA, 0.0375% to 0.3% CAR, and/or 0.5% POL) were 0.4 to at least 3.3 log CFU/g lower (depending on treatment) than those of the untreated controls. The antimicrobial activity of 2-ingredient combinations comprised of 0.125% CAA, 0.15% CAR, or 0.5% POL was enhanced (P < 0.05) when applied as a 3-ingredient combination (that is, 0.125% CAA + 0.15% CAR + 0.5% POL). These data may be useful for the selection of antimicrobial treatments to reduce Salmonella contamination in not-ready-to-eat processed chicken products.

Practical Application:  Findings from the study may be useful for the selection of suitable antimicrobials, concentrations, and combinations to reduce Salmonella contamination in not-ready-to-eat surface-browned, frozen, breaded chicken products.

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