Abstract: Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) seeds have a strong aroma that characteristically differs from the aroma of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). Its phytochemical background has only been recently investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify individual compounds responsible for tartary buckwheat aroma. Volatiles from different samples (whole seed, flour, and husks) were extracted with simultaneous extraction and distillation by Likens–Nickerson apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 48 compounds were quantified and their odor activity values (OAV) were calculated. OAV of 26 compounds was higher than 10; therefore, they significantly contribute to the overall tartary buckwheat aroma. The compounds with OAV > 500 were: (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenylethanol, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, hexanal, decanal, and nonanal. The most important difference from the aroma of common buckwheat is the absence of salicylaldehyde and presence of naphthalene. Salicylaldehyde could be proposed as a marker to detect contamination/adulteration of tartary buckwheat with common buckwheat.
Practical Application: Buckwheat is becoming one of important alternative crops. Its products which are rich in proteins, fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants have been associated with healthy nutrition. Although tartary buckwheat is similar to more familiar common buckwheat, their characteristic aromas differ notably. This study expands recent research on aroma of tartary buckwheat tea to seed, flour, and husks, and suggests how products from different species of buckwheat can be distinguished by analysis of aroma compounds.