Abstract: Cornus wilsoniana Wanger is a woody oil plant distributed in the south region of the Yellow River, China. Its oil has been taken as edible oil for over 100 y, and consumption of such oil is believed to prevent hyperlipidemia in Chinese folk recipe. This study has investigated the hypolipidemic effect of Cornus wilsoniana oil (CWO) in Sprague–Dawley rats. The results demonstrated that CWO could significantly decrease total cholesterol (TC), total triacylglycerol (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum, liver weight, hepatic TC, and TG. After analyzing the chemical constituents of CWO, we found that the content of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) was very high (69.12%). Specially, the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, accounted very great proportion (38.86%). The high hypolipidemic activity of CWO might be attributed to the lipid-lowering functions of these polyunsaturated fatty acids. Molecular docking was further performed to study the binding model of fatty acids (FA) from CWO to a possible hypolipidemic target, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ). The results showed that linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid could bind PPARδ very well.
Practical Application: Cornus wilsoniana oil could be used as equilibrated dietary oil, not only having hypolipidemic function, but also helping to overcome essential fatty acids deficiency.