Top Food Sources Contributing to Vitamin D Intake and the Association of Ready-to-Eat Cereal and Breakfast Consumption Habits to Vitamin D Intake in Canadians and United States Americans
Article first published online: 2 JUL 2012
© 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Journal of Food Science
Volume 77, Issue 8, pages H170–H175, August 2012
How to Cite
Hill, K. M., Jonnalagadda, S. S., Albertson, A. M., Joshi, N. A. and Weaver, C. M. (2012), Top Food Sources Contributing to Vitamin D Intake and the Association of Ready-to-Eat Cereal and Breakfast Consumption Habits to Vitamin D Intake in Canadians and United States Americans. Journal of Food Science, 77: H170–H175. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02787.x
- Issue published online: 3 AUG 2012
- Article first published online: 2 JUL 2012
- MS 20111200 Submitted 10/3/2011, Accepted 5/1/2012.
- vitamin D
Abstract: This study aimed to determine dietary vitamin D intake of U.S. Americans and Canadians and contributions of food sources to total vitamin D intake. Total of 7- or 14-d food intake data were analyzed for vitamin D by a proprietary nutrient assessment methodology that utilized food intake data from the Natl. Eating Trends® service, portion size data from NHANES 1999–2004, and nutrient values using the Univ. of Minnesota's Nutrition Data System for Research software. Study participants were 7837 U.S. Americans and 4025 Canadians, ≥2-y-old males and females. The main outcome measures were total dietary vitamin D intake, percent contribution of foods to total vitamin D intake, and vitamin D intake by cereal and breakfast consumption habits. ANOVA was used to determine differences in means or proportions by age and gender and according to breakfast consumption habits. Mean vitamin D intake ranged from 152 to 220 IU/d. Less than 2% of participants in all age groups from the United States and Canada met the 2011 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D from foods. Milk, meat, and fish were the top food sources for vitamin D for both Americans and Canadians. Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal was a top 10 source of vitamin D for Americans but not Canadians. Vitamin D intake was higher with more frequent RTE cereal and breakfast consumption in both countries, largely attributable to greater milk intake.
Practical Application: Most U.S. Americans and Canadians do not meet the 2011 Inst. of Medicine recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin D for their age groups from foods. Increasing breakfast and cereal consumption may be a useful strategy to increase dietary vitamin D intake to help individuals meet the RDA for vitamin D, particularly by increasing milk intake. However, it is likely that additional food fortification or vitamin D supplementation is required to achieve the RDA.