• breakfast;
  • cereal;
  • diet;
  • nutrients;
  • vitamin D

Abstract:  This study aimed to determine dietary vitamin D intake of U.S. Americans and Canadians and contributions of food sources to total vitamin D intake. Total of  7- or 14-d food intake data were analyzed for vitamin D by a proprietary nutrient assessment methodology that utilized food intake data from the Natl. Eating Trends® service, portion size data from NHANES 1999–2004, and nutrient values using the Univ. of Minnesota's Nutrition Data System for Research software. Study participants were 7837 U.S. Americans and 4025 Canadians, ≥2-y-old males and females. The main outcome measures were total dietary vitamin D intake, percent contribution of foods to total vitamin D intake, and vitamin D intake by cereal and breakfast consumption habits. ANOVA was used to determine differences in means or proportions by age and gender and according to breakfast consumption habits. Mean vitamin D intake ranged from 152 to 220 IU/d. Less than 2% of participants in all age groups from the United States and Canada met the 2011 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D from foods. Milk, meat, and fish were the top food sources for vitamin D for both Americans and Canadians. Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal was a top 10 source of vitamin D for Americans but not Canadians. Vitamin D intake was higher with more frequent RTE cereal and breakfast consumption in both countries, largely attributable to greater milk intake.

Practical Application:  Most U.S. Americans and Canadians do not meet the 2011 Inst. of Medicine recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin D for their age groups from foods. Increasing breakfast and cereal consumption may be a useful strategy to increase dietary vitamin D intake to help individuals meet the RDA for vitamin D, particularly by increasing milk intake. However, it is likely that additional food fortification or vitamin D supplementation is required to achieve the RDA.